Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Reduced Risk of Respiratory Diseases in Middle-Aged Caucasian Men: A Long-Term Prospective Cohort Study
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Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an index of cardiac and respiratory functioning, is strongly associated with a reduced risk of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to assess the prospective association of CRF with the risk of respiratory diseases (defined as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, or asthma). Cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, was assessed in 1974 middle-aged men. During a median follow-up of 25.7 years, 382 hospital diagnosed respiratory diseases were recorded. Cardiorespiratory fitness was linearly associated with risk of respiratory diseases. In analysis adjusted for several established and potential risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for respiratory diseases was 0.63 (0.45–0.88), when comparing extreme quartiles of CRF levels. The corresponding multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) for pneumonia was 0.67 (0.48–0.95). Our findings indicate a graded inverse and independent association between CRF and the future risk of respiratory diseases in a general male Caucasian population.
KeywordsCardiorespiratory fitness Maximal oxygen uptake Respiratory disease Pneumonia Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Asthma
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Kuopio ischemic heart disease
Maximal oxygen uptake
We thank the staff of the Kuopio Research Institute of Exercise Medicine and the Research Institute of Public Health and University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland for the data collection in the study.
This study was funded by The Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Helsinki, Finland.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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