Lung

, Volume 193, Issue 6, pp 939–945 | Cite as

Effects of Twenty Days of the Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic and Respiratory Parameters in Healthy Subjects

  • Rubini Alessandro
  • Bosco Gerardo
  • Lodi Alessandra
  • Cenci Lorenzo
  • Parmagnani Andrea
  • Grimaldi Keith
  • Zhongjin Yang
  • Paoli Antonio
Article

Abstract

Purpose

The effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) on weight loss, metabolic, and respiratory parameters were investigated in healthy subjects.

Methods

Thirty-two healthy subjects were randomized into two groups. The KD group followed a ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t0t20), then switched to a low-carbohydrate, no-ketogenic diet for 20 days (KD t20t40), and finally was on a Mediterranean diet (MD) for 2 more months (KD t40t2m). The MD group followed a MD for 20 days (MD t0t20), then followed a MD of 1400 kcal over the next 20 days (MD t20t40), and completed the study with the MD for 2 months (MD t40t2m). Body weight, body fat, respiratory rate, and respiratory gas parameters (including respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide end-tidal partial pressure (PETCO2), oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and resting energy expenditure (REE)) were measured at each point.

Results

A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in RER was observed after 20 and 40 days in the KD group, but not in the MD group. In the KD group, significant reductions were observed for both carbon dioxide output and PETCO2, however, there was no significant change in VO2, VCO2, and REE. While both diets significantly decreased body fat mass, the KD diet overall proved to have a higher percentage of fat loss versus the MD diet.

Conclusion

The KD may significantly decrease carbon dioxide body stores, which may theoretically be beneficial for patients with increased carbon dioxide arterial partial pressure due to respiratory insufficiency or failure.

Keywords

Ketogenic diet Respiration parameters Metabolism Resting energy expenditure 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Kim Hare and Marcelyn Cook for their English editorial assistance.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rubini Alessandro
    • 1
  • Bosco Gerardo
    • 1
  • Lodi Alessandra
    • 1
  • Cenci Lorenzo
    • 1
  • Parmagnani Andrea
    • 1
  • Grimaldi Keith
    • 2
  • Zhongjin Yang
    • 3
  • Paoli Antonio
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical SciencesUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.Biomedical Engineering LaboratoryUniversity of AtheneAthensGreece
  3. 3.The Institute for Human PerformanceSUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA

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