Use of Activated Factor VII in Patients with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A 10 Years Institutional Experience
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Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening condition with an obscure etiology and pathogenesis. It is associated with many drugs and diseases including chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and autoimmune disorders. This retrospective study reports our experience with 23 patients who had DAH and received intravenous recombinant activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa).
We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who received intravenous rFVIIa for DAH at a tertiary care university hospital between January 1, 2003 and May 31, 2013. We report demographics, etiology of DAH, frequency and total dose of intravenous rFVIIa, effect of rFVIIa on DAH, and morbidity and mortality.
Mean age was 47 ± 19 years. There were 13 men and 10 women. Nine patients had Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) vasculitis, two had systemic lupus erythematosus, three had Good pasture’s syndrome, seven were post-bone marrow transplant, one had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and one had cryoglobulinemia. Treatment in the ICU was required for 22 patients of whom 18 were intubated and on mechanical ventilation; one patient was treated on general medical service. All patients received 35–120 mcg/kg rFVIIa every 2 h until hemostasis was achieved or treatment was judged to be inadequate. In 22/23 patients, bleeding resolved with rFVIIa therapy. The mean dose to control bleeding was 5 ± 3 mg. Eight patients died (36 %) of their underlying condition; six of them had received bone marrow transplant, while two had ANCA vasculitis. Deaths were due to multiorgan failure, sepsis, and progressive underlying disease. No overt, clinically obvious adverse thrombotic events were observed with the use of rFVIIa.
Activated Factor VII can achieve hemostasis in patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
KeywordsDiffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) Factor VII Activated Factor VII