, Volume 187, Issue 4, pp 253–259 | Cite as

Experimental Study on Biopsy Sampling Using New Flexible Cryoprobes: Influence of Activation Time, Probe Size, Tissue Consistency, and Contact Pressure of the Probe on the Size of the Biopsy Specimen

  • Karl-Josef FrankeEmail author
  • Mara Szyrach
  • Georg Nilius
  • Jürgen Hetzel
  • Martin Hetzel
  • Karl-Heinz Ruehle
  • Markus D. Enderle


Cryoextraction is a procedure for recanalization of obstructed airways caused by exophytic growing tumors. Biopsy samples obtained with this method can be used for histological diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters influencing the size of cryobiopsies in an in vitro animal model. New flexible cryoprobes with different diameters were used to extract biopsies from lung tissue. These biopsies were compared with forceps biopsy (gold standard) in terms of the biopsy size. Tissue dependency of the biopsy size was analyzed by comparing biopsies taken from the lung, the liver, and gastric mucosa. The effect of contact pressure exerted by the tip of the cryoprobe on the tissue was analyzed on liver tissue separately. Biopsy size was estimated by measuring the weight and the diameter. Weight and diameter of cryobiopsies correlated positively with longer activation times and larger diameters of the cryoprobe. The weight of the biopsies was tissue dependent: lung < liver < stomach. Only little tissue dependency was found for the biopsy diameter. The biopsy size increased when the probe was pressed on the tissue during cooling. Cryobiopsies can be taken from different tissue types with flexible cryoprobes. The size of the samples depends on tissue type, probe diameter, application time, and pressure exerted by the probe on the tissue. Even the cryoprobe with the smallest diameter can provide larger biopsies than a forceps biopsy in lung. It can be expected that the same parameters influence the sample size of biopsies in vivo.


Cryorecanalization Cryobiopsy Cryotherapy Tracheobronchial obstruction Bronchoscopy Lung cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl-Josef Franke
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mara Szyrach
    • 2
  • Georg Nilius
    • 1
  • Jürgen Hetzel
    • 3
  • Martin Hetzel
    • 4
  • Karl-Heinz Ruehle
    • 1
  • Markus D. Enderle
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Helios Klinik AmbrockUniversity of Witten/HerdeckeHagenGermany
  2. 2.ERBE Elektromedizin GmbHTübingenGermany
  3. 3.Department of Hematology, Oncology, Immunology, Rheumatology and PulmonologyMedical Clinics of the University of TübingenTübingenGermany
  4. 4.Clinics for Pneumology and Internal MedicineRed Cross HospitalStuttgartGermany

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