Mobility trends of psychiatric trainees in Turkey: hard to leave, harder to stay?

  • Ozge KilicEmail author
  • Ekin Sonmez
  • Gamze Erzin
  • Sinan Guloksuz
  • Mariana Pinto da Costa
Letter to the Editor

Dear Sir,

The “brain drain” of the health workforce has been a long-standing concern, leading to major workforce shrinkage. Worldwide, unsatisfactory working conditions, lack of local training opportunities [1] and better-paid jobs abroad [2], have been pointed out as the key “pull” and “push” factors leading to psychiatrists’ migration.

From the 1960s to 1980s, many Turkish workers immigrated to another country in Europe [3], labeling Turkey as a “donor” country. Notably, in the last two decades, highly educated workers have become a larger portion of emigrant labor [4]. Given the importance of mobility trends, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) conducted the Brain Drain study exploring migration trends in 33 European countries (n = 2281) [5, 6]. Turkey’s unique geographic position, a junction between east and west, its status as a non-European Union (EU) country with a low number of psychiatrists (2.13 per 100,000 population) [7], a heavy burden of work, and...



We would like to thank the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) Brain Drain Study Group for their support to this research project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryKoç University HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryCaycuma State HospitalZonguldakTurkey
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryDiskapi Yildirim Beyazit Research and Training HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry and PsychologyMaastricht University Medical CentreMaastrichtNetherlands
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  6. 6.Hospital de Magalhães LemosPortoPortugal
  7. 7.Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar (ICBAS)University of PortoPortoPortugal
  8. 8.Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry (WHO Collaborating Centre for Mental Health Services Development)Queen Mary University of LondonLondonUK

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