Advertisement

Behavioral and electrophysiological responses to fairness norm violations in antisocial offenders

  • Sarah Verena Mayer
  • Karsten Rauss
  • Gilles Pourtois
  • Aiste Jusyte
  • Michael Schönenberg
Original Paper

Abstract

Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a stable, lifelong pattern of disregard for and violation of others’ rights. Disruptions in the representation of fairness norms may represent a key mechanism in the development and maintenance of this disorder. Here, we investigated fairness norm considerations and reactions to their violations. To examine electrophysiological correlates, we assessed the medial frontal negativity (MFN), an event-related potential previously linked to violations of social expectancy and norms. Incarcerated antisocial violent offenders (AVOs, n = 25) and healthy controls (CTLs, n = 24) acted as proposers in the dictator game (DG) and ultimatum game (UG) and received fair vs. unfair UG offers from either another human (social context) or a computer (non-social context). Results showed that AVOs made lower offers in the DG but not the UG, indicating more rational and strategic behavior. Most importantly, when acting as recipients in the UG, acceptance rates were modulated by social context in CTLs, while AVOs generally accepted more offers. Correspondingly, ERP data indicated pronounced MFN amplitudes following human offers in CTLs, whereas MFN amplitudes in AVOs were generally reduced. The current data suggest intact fairness norm representations but altered reactions to their violation in antisocial personality disorder.

Keywords

Medial frontal negativity Ultimatum game Dictator game Social decision-making Fairness norms Antisocial personality disorder 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Elisabeth Künzel and Angelika Bertsche for their support in data collection. Moreover, we would like to thank the staff of the JVA Adelsheim, especially Dr. Wolfgang Stelly, for their support in implementing the study.

Funding

S. V. M. was supported by the Postgraduate Research Grants Program of Baden-Württemberg and subsequently by the FAZIT foundation. A. J. was supported by the Promotion of Junior Researchers Program at the University of Tübingen and the LEAD Graduate School [GSC1028], a project of the Excellence Initiative of the German federal and state governments. Aside from financial support, no further contributions were made by the funders.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

406_2018_878_MOESM1_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 15 KB)
406_2018_878_MOESM2_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 17 KB)
406_2018_878_MOESM3_ESM.docx (16 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 15 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision (DSM-IV-TR). American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cleckley HM (1941) The mask of sanity: an attempt to clarify some issues about the so called psychopathic personality. Aware JournalismGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kahneman D, Knetsch JL, Thaler RH (1986) Fairness and the assumptions of economics. J Bus 59:285–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Engel C (2011) Dictator games: a meta study. Exp Econ 14:583–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berg JM, Lilienfeld SO, Waldman ID (2013) Bargaining with the devil: Using economic decision-making tasks to examine the heterogeneity of psychopathic traits. J Res Pers 47:472–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Spitzer M, Fischbacher U, Herrnberger B, Grön G, Fehr E (2007) The neural signature of social norm compliance. Neuron 56:185–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koenigs M, Kruepke M, Newman J (2010) Economic decision-making in psychopathy: a comparison with ventromedial prefrontal lesion patients. Neuropsychologia 48:2198–2204CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Güth W, Schmittberger R, Schwarze B (1982) An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining. J Econ Behav Organ 3:367–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bolton GE, Zwick R (1995) Anonymity versus punishment in ultimatum bargaining. Games Econ Behav 10:95–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van’t Wout M, Kahn RS, Sanfey AG, Aleman A (2006) Affective state and decision- making in the ultimatum game. Exp Brain Res 169:564–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanfey AG, Rilling JK, Aronson JA, Nystrom LE, Cohen JD (2003) The neural basis of economic decision-making in the ultimatum game. Science 300:1755–1758CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Radke S, Brazil IA, Scheper I, Bulten BH, De Bruijn ER (2013) Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy. Front Hum Neurosci 7:406CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Osumi T, Ohira H (2010) The positive side of psychopathy: Emotional detachment in psychopathy and rational decision-making in the ultimatum game. Pers Individ Differ 49:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vieira JB, Almeida PR, Ferreira-Santos F, Barbosa F, Marques-Teixeira J, Marsh AA (2013) Distinct neural activation patterns underlie economic decisions in high and low psychopathy scorers. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 9:1099–1107CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD, Williams KD (2003) Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science 302:290–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bush G, Luu P, Posner MI (2000) Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 4:215–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shackman AJ, Salomons TV, Slagter HA, Fox AS, Winter JJ, Davidson RJ (2011) The integration of negative affect, pain and cognitive control in the cingulate cortex. Nat Rev Neurosci 12:154–167CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ghashghaei H, Hilgetag C, Barbas H (2007) Sequence of information processing for emotions based on the anatomic dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Neuroimage 34:905–923CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Glenn AL, Yang Y, Raine A, Colletti P (2010) No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 183:140–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kiehl KA (2006) A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction. Psychiatry Res 142:107–128CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kiehl KA, Smith AM, Hare RD, Mendrek A, Forster BB, Brink J, Liddle PF (2001) Limbic abnormalities in affective processing by criminal psychopaths as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Biol Psychiatry 50:677–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Glenn AL, Raine A, Schug RA (2009) The neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy. Mol Psychiatry 14:5–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ly M, Motzkin JC, Philippi CL, Kirk GR, Newman JP, Kiehl KA, Koenigs M (2012) Cortical thinning in psychopathy. Am J Psychiatry 169:743–749CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rilling JK, Glenn AL, Jairam MR, Pagnoni G, Goldsmith DR, Elfenbein HA, Lilienfeld SO (2007) Neural correlates of social cooperation and non-cooperation as a function of psychopathy. Biol Psychiatry 61:1260–1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koenigs M (2012) The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy. Rev Neurosci 23:253–262CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yang Y, Raine A (2009) Prefrontal structural and functional brain imaging findings in antisocial, violent, and psychopathic individuals: a meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 174:81–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gehring WJ, Willoughby AR (2002) The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gains and losses. Science 295:2279–2282CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fukushima H, Hiraki K (2006) Perceiving an opponent’s loss: Gender-related differences in the medial-frontal negativity. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 1:149–157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alexopoulos J, Pfabigan DM, Göschl F, Bauer H, Fischmeister FPS (2013) Agency matters! Social preferences in the three-person ultimatum game. Front Hum Neurosci 7:312CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Alexopoulos J, Pfabigan DM, Lamm C, Bauer H, Fischmeister FPS (2012) Do we care about the powerless third? An ERP study of the three-person ultimatum game. Front Hum Neurosci 6:59CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wu Y, Leliveld MC, Zhou X (2011) Social distance modulates recipient’s fairness consideration in the dictator game: An ERP study. Biol Psychol 88:253–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu Y, Zhou Y, van Dijk E, Leliveld MC, Zhou X (2011) Social comparison affects brain responses to fairness in asset division: an ERP study with the ultimatum game. Front Hum Neurosci 5:131CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Van der Veen FM, Sahibdin PP (2011) Dissociation between medial frontal negativity and cardiac responses in the ultimatum game: effects of offer size and fairness. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 11:516–525CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Boksem MA, De Cremer D (2010) Fairness concerns predict medial frontal negativity amplitude in ultimatum bargaining. Soc Neurosci 5:118–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Formann AK, Waldherr K, Piswanger K (2011) Wiener Matrizen-Test 2. Manual. Beltz Test GmbH, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Andershed H, Gustafson SB, Kerr M, Stattin H (2002) The usefulness of self-reported psychopathy-like traits in the study of antisocial behaviour among non-referred adolescents. Eur J Pers 16:383–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Köhler DK, Kuska SK, Schmeck K, Hinrichs G, Fegert J (2010) Deutsche Version des Youth-Psychopathic-Traits-Inventory (YPI). In: Barkmann C, Schulte-Markwort M, Brähler E (eds) Klinisch-psychiatrische Ratingskalen für das Kindes- und Jugendalter. Hogrefe, Göttingen, pp 478–482Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Buss AH, Perry M (1992) The aggression questionnaire. J Pers Soc Psychol 63:452–459CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lecrubier Y, Sheehan D, Weiller E, Amorim P, Bonora I, Harnett Sheehan K, Janavs J, Dunbar G (1997) The mini international neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry 12:224–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ackenheil M, Stotz G, Dietz-Bauer R, Vossen A (1999) Deutsche Fassung des Mini- international neuropsychiatric interview. Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik München, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Langner O, Dotsch R, Bijlstra G, Wigboldus DH, Hawk ST, van Knippenberg A (2010) Presentation and validation of the radboud faces database. Cogn Emot 24:1377–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lundqvist, D., Flykt, A., Öhman, A. (1998). The Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces - KDEF, CD ROM from Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychology section, Karolinska InstitutetGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Goeleven E, De Raedt R, Leyman L, Verschuere B (2008) The Karolinska directed emotional faces: a validation study. Cogn Emo 22:1094–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jutten C, Herault J (1991) Blind separation of sources, part I: An adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture. Sign Process 24:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dunn BR, Dunn DA, Languis M, Andrews D (1998) The relation of ERP components to complex memory processing. Brain Cogn 36:355–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Noldy NE, Stelmack RM, Campbell KB (1990) Event-related potentials and recognition memory for pictures and words: The effects of intentional and incidental learning. Psychophysiology 27:417–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Curry O, Chesters MJ, Viding E (2011) The psychopath’s dilemma: The effects of psychopathic personality traits in one-shot games. Pers Individ Differ 50(6):804–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Radke S, Güroğlu B, De Bruijn ER (2012) There’s something about a fair split: intentionality moderates context-based fairness considerations in social decision-making. PloS One 7:e31491CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Hewig J, Kretschmer N, Trippe RH, Hecht H, Coles MG, Holroyd CB, Miltner WH (2011) Why humans deviate from rational choice. Psychophysiology 48:507–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Moser A, Gaertig C, Ruz M (2014) Social information and personal interests modulate neural activity during economic decision-making. Front Hum Neurosci 8:31PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hajcak G, Moser JS, Holroyd CB, Simons RF (2006) The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes. Biol Psychol 71:148–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yeung N, Sanfey AG (2004) Independent coding of reward magnitude and valence in the human brain. J Neurosci 24:6258–6264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Holroyd CB, Coles MG (2002) The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcement learning, dopamine, and the error-related negativity. Psychol Rev 109:679–709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chang LJ, Sanfey AG (2009) Unforgettable ultimatums? Expectation violations promote enhanced social memory following economic bargaining. Front Behav Neurosci 3:277–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Miltner WH, Braun CH, Coles MG (1997) Event-related brain potentials following incorrect feedback in a time-estimation task: Evidence for a “generic” neural system for error detection. J Cogn Neurosci 9:788–798CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rainville P, Duncan GH, Price DD, Carrier B, Bushnell MC (1997) Pain affect encoded in human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science 277:968–971CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sawamoto N, Honda M, Okada T, Hanakawa T, Kanda M, Fukuyama H, Konishi J, Shibasaki H (2000) Expectation of pain enhances responses to nonpainful somatosensory stimulation in the anterior cingulate cortex and parietal operculum/posterior insula: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci 20:7438–7445PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology und PsychotherapyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Neurophysiology and Interventional NeuropsychiatryUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral NeurobiologyUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Experimental Clinical and Health PsychologyGhent UniversityGhentBelgium
  5. 5.LEAD Graduate School and Research NetworkUniversity of TübingenTübingenGermany

Personalised recommendations