Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries
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The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.
KeywordsPost-traumatic stress disorder Depression Psychological symptoms Occupational injury
We would like to thank Hsueh-Ching Wu, RN. PhD (National Taiwan University School of Nursing), Li-Jie Wang, RN, Yichuan Chen, RN, and I-Ju Lee, RN, provided help and input on performing MINI telephone interview of this study. There was no financial compensation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C. (Taiwan) Grant MOST 103-2314-B-002-042.
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