Diffusion tensor imaging in Alzheimer’s disease and affective disorders

  • Stefan J. Teipel
  • Martin Walter
  • Yuttachai Likitjaroen
  • Peter Schönknecht
  • Oliver Gruber
Invited Review

Abstract

The functional organization of the brain in segregated neuronal networks has become a leading paradigm in the study of brain diseases. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allows testing the validity and clinical utility of this paradigm on the structural connectivity level. DTI in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) suggests a selective impairment of intracortical projecting fiber tracts underlying the functional disorganization of neuronal networks supporting memory and other cognitive functions. These findings have already been tested for their utility as clinical markers of AD in large multicenter studies. Affective disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BP), show a high comorbidity with AD in geriatric populations and may even have a pathogenetic overlap with AD. DTI studies in MDD and BP are still limited to small-scale monocenter studies, revealing subtle abnormalities in cortico-subcortial networks associated with affect regulation and reward/aversion control. The clinical utility of these findings remains to be further explored. The present paper presents the methodological background of diffusion imaging, including DTI and diffusion spectrum imaging, and discusses key findings in AD and affective disorders. The results of our review strongly point toward the necessity of large-scale multicenter multimodal transnosological networks to study the structural and functional basis of neuronal disconnection underlying different neuropsychiatric diseases.

Keywords

Alzheimer’s disease Mild cognitive impairment Major depressive disorder Bipolar disorder Early diagnosis Subcortical fiber tract integrity Neuronal networks 

References

  1. 1.
    Aboitiz F, Rodriguez E, Olivares R, Zaidel E (1996) Age-related changes in fibre composition of the human corpus callosum: sex differences. NeuroReport 7:1761–1764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acosta-Cabronero J, Williams GB, Pengas G, Nestor PJ (2010) Absolute diffusivities define the landscape of white matter degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 133:529–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexopoulos GS, Kiosses DN, Choi SJ, Murphy CF, Lim KO (2002) Frontal white matter microstructure and treatment response of late-life depression: a preliminary study. Am J Psychiatry 159:1929–1932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Almeida JRC, Versace A, Hassel S, Kupfer DJ, Phillips ML (2010) Elevated amygdala activity to sad facial expressions: a state marker of bipolar but not unipolar depression. Biol Psychiatry 67:414–421PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Almeida JRCD, Versace A, Mechelli A, Hassel S, Quevedo K, Kupfer DJ, Phillips ML (2009) Abnormal amygdala-prefrontal effective connectivity to happy faces differentiates bipolar from major depression. Biol Psychiatry 66:451–459PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alves GS, Karakaya T, Fusser F, Kordulla M, O’Dwyer L, Christl J, Magerkurth J, Oertel-Knochel V, Knochel C, Prvulovic D, Jurcoane A, Laks J, Engelhardt E, Hampel H, Pantel J (2012) Association of microstructural white matter abnormalities with cognitive dysfunction in geriatric patients with major depression. Psychiatry Res 203:194–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anand A, Li Y, Wang Y, Lowe MJ, Dzemidzic M (2009) Resting state corticolimbic connectivity abnormalities in unmedicated bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Psychiatry Res 171:189–198PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aralasmak A, Ulmer JL, Kocak M, Salvan CV, Hillis AE, Yousem DM (2006) Association, commissural, and projection pathways and their functional deficit reported in literature. J Comput Assist Tomogr 30:695–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bae JN, MacFall JR, Krishnan KRR, Payne ME, Steffens DC, Taylor WD (2006) Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex white matter alterations in late-life depression. Biol Psychiatry 60:1356–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bammer R (2003) Basic principles of diffusion-weighted imaging. Eur J Radiol 45:169–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bao AM, Meynen G, Swaab DF (2008) The stress system in depression and neurodegeneration: focus on the human hypothalamus. Brain Res Rev 57:531–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bartzokis G, Beckson M, Lu PH, Nuechterlein KH, Edwards N, Mintz J (2001) Age-related changes in frontal and temporal lobe volumes in men: a magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:461–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Basser PJ (1995) Inferring microstructural features and the physiological state of tissues from diffusion-weighted images. NMR Biomed 8:333–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Basser PJ, Pajevic S, Pierpaoli C, Duda J, Aldroubi A (2000) In vivo fiber tractography using DT-MRI data. Magn Reson Med 44:625–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Basser PJ, Pierpaoli C (1996) Microstructural and physiological features of tissues elucidated by quantitative-diffusion-tensor MRI. J Magn Reson B 111:209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baur V, Hänggi J, Rufer M, Delsignore A, Jäncke L, Herwig U, Beatrix Brühl A (2011) White matter alterations in social anxiety disorder. J Psychiatr Res 45:1366–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beaulieu C, Does MD, Snyder RE, Allen PS (1996) Changes in water diffusion due to wallerian degeneration in peripheral nerve. Magn Reson Med 36:627–631PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beaulieu C, Plewes C, Paulson LA, Roy D, Snook L, Concha L, Phillips L (2005) Imaging brain connectivity in children with diverse reading ability. Neuroimage 25:1266–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bellani M, Brambilla P (2011) Diffusion imaging studies of white matter integrity in bipolar disorder. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 20:137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bernstein HG, Klix M, Dobrowolny H, Brisch R, Steiner J, Bielau H, Gos T, Bogerts B (2012) A postmortem assessment of mammillary body volume, neuronal number and densities, and fornix volume in subjects with mood disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262:637–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bezerra DM, Pereira FRS, Cendes F, Jackowski MP, Nakano EY, Moscoso MA, Ribeiz SRI, Avila R, Castro CCD, Bottino CMC (2012) DTI voxelwise analysis did not differentiate older depressed patients from older subjects without depression. J Psychiatr Res 46:1643–1649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bielau H, Trübner K, Krell D, Agelink MW, Bernstein HG, Stauch R, Mawrin C, Danos P, Gerhard L, Bogerts B, Baumann B (2005) Volume deficits of subcortical nuclei in mood disorders—a postmortem study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 255:401–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Blood AJ, Iosifescu DV, Makris N, Perlis RH, Kennedy DN, Dougherty DD, Kim BW, Lee MJ, Wu S, Lee S, Calhoun J, Hodge SM, Fava M, Rosen BR, Smoller JW, Gasic GP, Breiter HC (2010) Microstructural abnormalities in subcortical reward circuitry of subjects with major depressive disorder. PLoS ONE 5:e13945PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bozzali M, Falini A, Franceschi M, Cercignani M, Zuffi M, Scotti G, Comi G, Filippi M (2002) White matter damage in Alzheimer’s disease assessed in vivo using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 72:742–746PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bozzali M, Franceschi M, Falini A, Pontesilli S, Cercignani M, Magnani G, Scotti G, Comi G, Filippi M (2001) Quantification of tissue damage in ad using diffusion tensor and magnetization transfer MRI. Neurology 57:1135–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bracco L, Piccini C, Moretti M, Mascalchi M, Sforza A, Nacmias B, Cellini E, Bagnoli S, Sorbi S (2005) Alzheimer’s disease: role of size and location of white matter changes in determining cognitive deficits. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 20:358–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brambilla P, Bellani M, Yeh P-H, Soares JC, Tansella M (2009) White matter connectivity in bipolar disorder. Int Rev Psychiatry 21:380–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chaddock CA, Barker GJ, Marshall N, Schulze K, Hall MH, Fern A, Walshe M, Bramon E, Chitnis XA, Murray R, McDonald C (2009) White matter microstructural impairments and genetic liability to familial bipolar I disorder. BJP 194:527–534Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Choi SJ, Lim KO, Monteiro I, Reisberg B (2005) Diffusion tensor imaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early Alzheimer’s disease: a preliminary study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 18:12–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chua TC, Wen W, Slavin MJ, Sachdev PS (2008) Diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: a review. Curr Opin Neurol 21:83–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clerx L, Visser PJ, Verhey F, Aalten P (2012) New MRI markers for Alzheimer’s disease: a meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging and a comparison with medial temporal lobe measurements. J Alzheimers Dis 29:405–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Conturo TE, Lori NF, Cull TS, Akbudak E, Snyder AZ, Shimony JS, McKinstry RC, Burton H, Raichle ME (1999) Tracking neuronal fiber pathways in the living human brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:10422–10427PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Craddock RC, Holtzheimer PE, Hu XP, Mayberg HS (2009) Disease state prediction from resting state functional connectivity. Magn Reson Med 62:1619–1628PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cullen KR, Klimes-Dougan B, Muetzel R, Mueller BA, Camchong J, Houri A, Kurma S, Lim KO (2010) Altered white matter microstructure in adolescents with major depression: a preliminary study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 49:173–183.e171Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    de Groot JC, de Leeuw FE, Oudkerk M, van Gijn J, Hofman A, Jolles J, Breteler MM (2000) Cerebral white matter lesions and cognitive function: the Rotterdam scan study. Ann Neurol 47:145–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Douaud G, Jbabdi S, Behrens TE, Menke RA, Gass A, Monsch AU, Rao A, Whitcher B, Kindlmann G, Matthews PM, Smith S (2011) Dti measures in crossing-fibre areas: increased diffusion anisotropy reveals early white matter alteration in MCI and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 55:880–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Douek P, Turner R, Pekar J, Patronas N, Le Bihan D (1991) Mr color mapping of myelin fiber orientation. J Comput Assist Tomogr 15:923–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Draganski B, Geisler P, Hajak G, Schuierer G, Bogdahn U, Winkler J, May A (2002) Hypothalamic gray matter changes in narcoleptic patients. Nat Med 8:1186–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Drevets WC, Price JL, Furey ML (2008) Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Struct Funct 213:93–118PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Drevets WC, Price JL, Furey ML (2008) Brain structural and functional abnormalities in mood disorders: implications for neurocircuitry models of depression. Brain Struct Funct 213:93–118PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Duning T, Warnecke T, Mohammadi S, Lohmann H, Schiffbauer H, Kugel H, Knecht S, Ringelstein EB, Deppe M (2009) Pattern and progression of white-matter changes in a case of posterior cortical atrophy using diffusion tensor imaging. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:432–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dyrba M, Ewers M, Wegrzyn M, Kilimann I, Plant C, Oswald A, Meindl T, Pievani M, Bokde AL, Fellgiebel A, Filippi M, Hampel H, Kloppel S, Hauenstein K, Kirste T, Teipel SJ (2013) Robust automated detection of microstructural white matter degeneration in Alzheimer’s disease using machine learning classification of multicenter DTI data. PLoS ONE 8:e64925PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eckert U, Metzger CD, Buchmann JE, Kaufmann J, Osoba A, Li M, Safron A, Liao W, Steiner J, Bogerts B, Walter M (2012) Preferential networks of the mediodorsal nucleus and centromedian–parafascicular complex of the thalamus—a DTI tractography study. Hum Brain Mapp 33:2627–2637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Einstein A (1956) Investigation on the theory of brownian motion. Dover, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Emery VO, Oxman TE (1992) Update on the dementia spectrum of depression. Am J Psychiatry 149:305–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Englund E (2002) Neuropathology of white matter lesions in vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebrovasc Dis 13(Suppl 2):11–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Farquharson S, Tournier JD, Calamante F, Fabinyi G, Schneider-Kolsky M, Jackson GD, Connelly A (2013) White matter fiber tractography: why we need to move beyond DTI. J Neurosurg 118:1367–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Fellgiebel A, Muller MJ, Wille P, Dellani PR, Scheurich A, Schmidt LG, Stoeter P (2005) Color-coded diffusion-tensor-imaging of posterior cingulate fiber tracts in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging 26:1193–1198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fields RD (2008) White matter in learning, cognition and psychiatric disorders. Trends Neurosci 31:361–370PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fields RD (2008) White matter matters. Sci Am 298:42–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Filley CM (2011) White matter: beyond focal disconnection. Neurol Clin 29:81–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Filley CM (2010) White matter: organization and functional relevance. Neuropsychol Rev 20:158–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fischer FU, Scheurich A, Wegrzyn M, Schermuly I, Bokde AL, Kloppel S, Pouwels PJ, Teipel S, Yakushev I, Fellgiebel A (2012) Automated tractography of the cingulate bundle in Alzheimer’s disease: a multicenter DTI study. J Magn Reson Imaging 36:84–91Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Frazier JA, Breeze JL, Papadimitriou G, Kennedy DN, Hodge SM, Moore CM, Howard JD, Rohan MP, Caviness VS, Makris N (2007) White matter abnormalities in children with and at risk for bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord 9:799–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Friese U, Meindl T, Herpertz SC, Reiser MF, Hampel H, Teipel SJ (2010) Diagnostic utility of novel MRI-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease: diffusion tensor imaging and deformation-based morphometry. J Alzheimers Dis 20:477–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Castellanos FX, Liu H, Zijdenbos A, Paus T, Evans AC, Rapoport JL (1999) Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nat Neurosci 2:861–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goldstein JM, Seidman LJ, Makris N, Ahern T, O’Brien LM, Caviness VS, Kennedy DN, Faraone SV, Tsuang MT (2007) Hypothalamic abnormalities in schizophrenia: sex effects and genetic vulnerability. Biol Psychiatry 61:935–945PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grana M, Termenon M, Savio A, Gonzalez-Pinto A, Echeveste J, Perez JM, Besga A (2011) Computer aided diagnosis system for alzheimer disease using brain diffusion tensor imaging features selected by pearson’s correlation. Neurosci Lett 502:225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Greicius MD, Flores BH, Menon V, Glover GH, Solvason HB, Kenna H, Reiss AL, Schatzberg AF (2007) Resting-state functional connectivity in major depression: abnormally increased contributions from subgenual cingulate cortex and thalamus. Biol Psychiatry 62:429–437PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Greicius MD, Supekar K, Menon V, Dougherty RF (2009) Resting-state functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity in the default mode network. Cereb Cortex 19:72–78Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ha TH, Her JY, Kim JH, Chang JS, Cho HS, Ha K (2011) Similarities and differences of white matter connectivity and water diffusivity in bipolar I and II disorder. Neurosci Lett 505:150–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hagmann P, Jonasson L, Deffieux T, Meuli R, Thiran JP, Wedeen VJ (2006) Fibertract segmentation in position orientation space from high angular resolution diffusion MRI. Neuroimage 32:665–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hagmann P, Jonasson L, Maeder P, Thiran JP, Wedeen VJ, Meuli R (2006) Understanding diffusion MR imaging techniques: from scalar diffusion-weighted imaging to diffusion tensor imaging and beyond. Radiographics 26(Suppl 1):S205–S223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hahn K, Myers N, Prigarin S, Rodenacker K, Kurz A, Forstl H, Zimmer C, Wohlschlager AM, Sorg C (2013) Selectively and progressively disrupted structural connectivity of functional brain networks in Alzheimer’s disease—revealed by a novel framework to analyze edge distributions of networks detecting disruptions with strong statistical evidence. Neuroimage 81:96–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Henry RG, Oh J, Nelson SJ, Pelletier D (2003) Directional diffusion in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a possible in vivo signature of wallerian degeneration. J Magn Reson Imaging 18:420–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Horn DI, Yu C, Steiner J, Buchmann J, Kaufmann J, Osoba A, Eckert U, Zierhut KC, Schiltz K, He H, Biswal B, Bogerts B, Walter M (2010) Glutamatergic and resting-state functional connectivity correlates of severity in major depression—the role of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. Front Syst Neurosci 4:1–10Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Huang J, Friedland RP, Auchus AP (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of normal-appearing white matter in mild cognitive impairment and early alzheimer disease: preliminary evidence of axonal degeneration in the temporal lobe. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 28:1943–1948PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hutchinson EB, Rutecki PA, Alexander AL, Sutula TP (2012) Fisher statistics for analysis of diffusion tensor directional information. J Neurosci Methods 206:40–45PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Imperati D, Colcombe S, Kelly C, Di Martino A, Zhou J, Castellanos FX, Milham MP (2011) Differential development of human brain white matter tracts. PLoS ONE 6:e23437PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Jia Z, Wang Y, Huang X, Kuang W, Wu Q, Lui S, Sweeney JA, Gong Q (2013) Impaired frontothalamic circuitry in suicidal patients with depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging at 3.0 T. J Psychiatry Neurosci 38:130023Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Johansen-Berg H, Behrens TEJ, Sillery E, Ciccarelli O, Thompson AJ, Smith SM, Matthews PM (2005) Functional-anatomical validation and individual variation of diffusion tractography-based segmentation of the human thalamus. Cereb Cortex 15:31–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Johansen-Berg H, Rushworth MF (2009) Using diffusion imaging to study human connectional anatomy. Annu Rev Neurosci 32:75–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kieseppä T, Eerola M, Mäntylä R, Neuvonen T, Poutanen V-P, Luoma K, Tuulio-Henriksson A, Jylhä P, Mantere O, Melartin T, Rytsälä H, Vuorilehto M, Isometsä E (2010) Major depressive disorder and white matter abnormalities: a diffusion tensor imaging study with tract-based spatial statistics. J Affect Disord 120:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kim JW, Lee DY, Choo IH, Seo EH, Kim SG, Park SY, Woo JI (2011) Microstructural alteration of the anterior cingulum is associated with apathy in alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:644–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Konishi J, Yamada K, Kizu O, Ito H, Sugimura K, Yoshikawa K, Nakagawa M, Nishimura T (2005) Mr tractography for the evaluation of functional recovery from lenticulostriate infarcts. Neurology 64:108–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kubicki M, Westin CF, Maier SE, Mamata H, Frumin M, Ersner-Hershfield H, Kikinis R, Jolesz FA, McCarley R, Shenton ME (2002) Diffusion tensor imaging and its application to neuropsychiatric disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry 10:324–336PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kunimatsu A, Aoki S, Masutani Y, Abe O, Mori H, Ohtomo K (2003) Three-dimensional white matter tractography by diffusion tensor imaging in ischaemic stroke involving the corticospinal tract. Neuroradiology 45:532–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kunimatsu A, Itoh D, Nakata Y, Kunimatsu N, Aoki S, Masutani Y, Abe O, Yoshida M, Minami M, Ohtomo K (2007) Utilization of diffusion tensor tractography in combination with spatial normalization to assess involvement of the corticospinal tract in capsular/pericapsular stroke: feasibility and clinical implications. J Magn Reson Imaging 26:1399–1404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Le Bihan D (2003) Looking into the functional architecture of the brain with diffusion MRI. Nat Rev Neurosci 4:469–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Le Bihan D (1991) Molecular diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Magn Reson Q 7:1–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Le Bihan D (1995) Molecular diffusion, tissue microdynamics and microstructure. NMR Biomed 8:375–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Le Bihan D, Mangin JF, Poupon C, Clark CA, Pappata S, Molko N, Chabriat H (2001) Diffusion tensor imaging: concepts and applications. J Magn Reson Imaging 13:534–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Le Bihan D, Turner R, Douek P, Patronas N (1992) Diffusion MR imaging: clinical applications. AJR Am J Roentgenol 159:591–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Li W, Liu J, Skidmore F, Liu Y, Tian J, Li K (2010) White matter microstructure changes in the thalamus in Parkinson disease with depression: a diffusion tensor MR imaging study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 31:1861–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Likitjaroen Y, Meindl T, Friese U, Wagner M, Buerger K, Hampel H, Teipel SJ (2012) Longitudinal changes of fractional anisotropy in Alzheimer’s disease patients treated with galantamine: a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 262:341–350Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Likitjaroen Y, Suwanwela NC, Mitchell AJ, Lerdlum S, Phanthumchinda K, Teipel SJ (2012) Isolated motor neglect following infarction of the posterior limb of the right internal capsule: a case study with diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography. J Neurol 259:100–105Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Liu J-X, Chen Y-S, Hsieh J-C, Su T-P, Yeh T-C, Chen L-F (2010) Differences in white matter abnormalities between bipolar I and II disorders. J Affect Disord 127:309–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lu LH, Zhou XJ, Keedy SK, Reilly JL, Sweeney JA (2011) White matter microstructure in untreated first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis: comparison with schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord 13:604–613PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ma N, Li L, Shu N, Liu J, Gong G, He Z, Li Z, Tan L, Stone WS, Zhang Z, Xu L, Jiang T (2007) White matter abnormalities in first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with major depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164:823–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Madden DJ, Whiting WL, Huettel SA, White LE, MacFall JR, Provenzale JM (2004) Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in cerebral white matter: relation to response time. Neuroimage 21:1174–1181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Mahon K, Burdick KE, Szeszko PR (2010) A role for white matter abnormalities in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 34:533–554PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Makris N, Worth AJ, Sorensen AG, Papadimitriou GM, Wu O, Reese TG, Wedeen VJ, Davis TL, Stakes JW, Caviness VS, Kaplan E, Rosen BR, Pandya DN, Kennedy DN (1997) Morphometry of in vivo human white matter association pathways with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 42:951–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mayberg HS, Liotti M, Brannan SK, McGinnis S, Mahurin RK, Jerabek PA, Silva JA, Tekell JL, Martin CC, Lancaster JL, Fox PT (1999) Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: converging pet findings in depression and normal sadness. Am J Psychiatry 156:675–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    McIntosh AM, Hall J, Lymer GKS, Sussmann JED, Lawrie SM (2009) Genetic risk for white matter abnormalities in bipolar disorder. Int Rev Psychiatry 21:387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    McIntosh AM, Maniega SM, Lymer GKS, McKirdy J, Hall J, Sussmann JED, Bastin ME, Clayden JD, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM (2008) White matter tractography in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 64:1088–1092PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Medina D, DeToledo-Morrell L, Urresta F, Gabrieli JD, Moseley M, Fleischman D, Bennett DA, Leurgans S, Turner DA, Stebbins GT (2006) White matter changes in mild cognitive impairment and ad: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neurobiol Aging 27:663–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Meier-Ruge W, Ulrich J, Bruhlmann M, Meier E (1992) Age-related white matter atrophy in the human brain. Ann N Y Acad Sci 673:260–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mielke MM, Kozauer NA, Chan KC, George M, Toroney J, Zerrate M, Bandeen-Roche K, Wang MC, Vanzijl P, Pekar JJ, Mori S, Lyketsos CG, Albert M (2009) Regionally-specific diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 46:47–55PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller AK, Alston RL, Corsellis JA (1980) Variation with age in the volumes of grey and white matter in the cerebral hemispheres of man: measurements with an image analyser. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 6:119–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Moseley ME, Kucharczyk J, Asgari HS, Norman D (1991) Anisotropy in diffusion-weighted MRI. Magn Reson Med 19:321–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Murphy CF, Gunning-Dixon FM, Hoptman MJ, Lim KO, Ardekani B, Shields JK, Hrabe J, Kanellopoulos D, Shanmugham BR, Alexopoulos GS (2007) White-matter integrity predicts stroop performance in patients with geriatric depression. Biol Psychiatry 61:1007–1010PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Naggara O, Oppenheim C, Rieu D, Raoux N, Rodrigo S, Dalla Barba G, Meder JF (2006) Diffusion tensor imaging in early Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatry Res 146:243–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Neil JJ (2008) Diffusion imaging concepts for clinicians. J Magn Reson Imaging 27:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nelles M, Gieseke J, Flacke S, Lachenmayer L, Schild HH, Urbach H (2008) Diffusion tensor pyramidal tractography in patients with anterior choroidal artery infarcts. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 29:488–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Nezamzadeh M, Wedeen VJ, Wang R, Zhang Y, Zhan W, Young K, Meyerhoff DJ, Weiner MW, Schuff N (2010) In-vivo investigation of the human cingulum bundle using the optimization of MR diffusion spectrum imaging. Eur J Radiol 75:e29–e36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Nierenberg J, Pomara N, Hoptman MJ, Sidtis JJ, Ardekani BA, Lim KO (2005) Abnormal white matter integrity in healthy apolipoprotein e epsilon4 carriers. NeuroReport 16:1369–1372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nobuhara K, Okugawa G, Minami T, Takase K, Yoshida T, Yagyu T, Tajika A, Sugimoto T, Tamagaki C, Ikeda K, Sawada S, Kinoshita T (2004) Effects of electroconvulsive therapy on frontal white matter in late-life depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuropsychobiology 50:48–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nobuhara K, Okugawa G, Sugimoto T, Minami T, Tamagaki C, Takase K, Saito Y, Sawada S, Kinoshita T (2006) Frontal white matter anisotropy and symptom severity of late-life depression: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 77:120–122PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Nolte J (2002) The human brain. Mosby, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nucifora PG, Verma R, Lee SK, Melhem ER (2007) Diffusion-tensor MR imaging and tractography: exploring brain microstructure and connectivity. Radiology 245:367–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    O’Sullivan M, Jones DK, Summers PE, Morris RG, Williams SC, Markus HS (2001) Evidence for cortical “disconnection” as a mechanism of age-related cognitive decline. Neurology 57:632–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Osoba A, Hänggi J, Li M, Horn DI, Metzger C, Eckert U, Kaufmann J, Zierhut K, Steiner J, Schiltz K, Heinze H-J, Bogerts B, Walter M (2013) Disease severity is correlated to tract specific changes of fractional anisotropy in md and cm thalamus—a DTI study in major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 149:116–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Panza F, Frisardi V, Capurso C, D’Introno A, Colacicco AM, Imbimbo BP, Santamato A, Vendemiale G, Seripa D, Pilotto A, Capurso A, Solfrizzi V (2010) Late-life depression, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia: possible continuum? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 18:98–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    H-J Peng, H-r Zheng, Y-p Ning, Zhang Y, B-C Shan, Zhang L, H-c Yang, Liu J, Z-x Li, J-s Zhou, Z-J Zhang, L-J Li (2013) Abnormalities of cortical-limbic-cerebellar white matter networks may contribute to treatment-resistant depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study. BMC Psychiatry 13:72Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pengas G, Williams GB, Acosta-Cabronero J, Ash TW, Hong YT, Izquierdo-Garcia D, Fryer TD, Hodges JR, Nestor PJ (2012) The relationship of topographical memory performance to regional neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease. Front Aging Neurosci 4:17PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Hedehus M, Lim KO, Adalsteinsson E, Moseley M (2000) Age-related decline in brain white matter anisotropy measured with spatially corrected echo-planar diffusion tensor imaging. Magn Reson Med 44:259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Phan KL, Orlichenko A, Boyd E, Angstadt M, Coccaro EF, Liberzon I, Arfanakis K (2009) Preliminary evidence of white matter abnormality in the uncinate fasciculus in generalized social anxiety disorder. Biol Psychiatry 66:691–694PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Phillips ML, Drevets WC, Rauch SL, Lane R (2003) Neurobiology of emotion perception II: implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biol Psychiatry 54:515–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Pierpaoli C, Barnett A, Pajevic S, Chen R, Penix LR, Virta A, Basser P (2001) Water diffusion changes in wallerian degeneration and their dependence on white matter architecture. Neuroimage 13:1174–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Pierpaoli C, Basser PJ (1996) Toward a quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Magn Reson Med 36:893–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Price JL, Drevets WC (2010) Neurocircuitry of mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:192–216PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Raichle ME, MacLeod AM, Snyder AZ, Powers WJ, Gusnard DA, Shulman GL (2001) A default mode of brain function. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:676–682PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Raichle ME, Snyder AZ (2007) A default mode of brain function: a brief history of an evolving idea. Neuroimage 37:1083–1090; discussion 1097–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Ruschel M, Knosche TR, Friederici AD, Turner R, Geyer S, Anwander A (2013) Connectivity architecture and subdivision of the human inferior parietal cortex revealed by diffusion MRI. Cereb CortexGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salat DH, Tuch DS, Greve DN, van der Kouwe AJ, Hevelone ND, Zaleta AK, Rosen BR, Fischl B, Corkin S, Rosas HD, Dale AM (2005) Age-related alterations in white matter microstructure measured by diffusion tensor imaging. Neurobiol Aging 26:1215–1227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schindler S, Schonknecht P, Schmidt L, Anwander A, Strauss M, Trampel R, Bazin PL, Moller HE, Hegerl U, Turner R, Geyer S (2013) Development and evaluation of an algorithm for the computer-assisted segmentation of the human hypothalamus on 7-tesla magnetic resonance images. PLoS ONE 8:e66394PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Schmahmann JD, Smith EE, Eichler FS, Filley CM (2008) Cerebral white matter: neuroanatomy, clinical neurology, and neurobehavioral correlates. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1142:266–309PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schmidt R, Ropele S, Enzinger C, Petrovic K, Smith S, Schmidt H, Matthews PM, Fazekas F (2005) White matter lesion progression, brain atrophy, and cognitive decline: the Austrian stroke prevention study. Ann Neurol 58:610–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schmithorst VJ, Wilke M, Dardzinski BJ, Holland SK (2005) Cognitive functions correlate with white matter architecture in a normal pediatric population: a diffusion tensor MRI study. Hum Brain Mapp 26:139–147PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Schmithorst VJ, Wilke M, Dardzinski BJ, Holland SK (2002) Correlation of white matter diffusivity and anisotropy with age during childhood and adolescence: a cross-sectional diffusion-tensor MR imaging study. Radiology 222:212–218PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schönknecht P, Anwander A, Petzold F, Schindler S, Knosche TR, Moller HE, Hegerl U, Turner R, Geyer S (2013) Diffusion imaging-based subdivision of the human hypothalamus: a magnetic resonance study with clinical implications. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 263:497–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Seok JH, Choi S, Lim HK, Lee SH, Kim I, Ham BJ (2013) Effect of the comt val158met polymorphism on white matter connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder. Neurosci Lett 545:35–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Solano-Castiella E, Anwander A, Lohmann G, Weiss M, Docherty C, Geyer S, Reimer E, Friederici AD, Turner R (2010) Diffusion tensor imaging segments the human amygdala in vivo. Neuroimage 49:2958–2965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Soldner J, Meindl T, Koch W, Bokde AL, Reiser MF, Moller HJ, Burger K, Hampel H, Teipel SJ (2012) structural and functional neuronal connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease: a combined DTI and FMRI study. Nervenarzt 83:878–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Song SK, Sun SW, Ju WK, Lin SJ, Cross AH, Neufeld AH (2003) Diffusion tensor imaging detects and differentiates axon and myelin degeneration in mouse optic nerve after retinal ischemia. Neuroimage 20:1714–1722PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Song SK, Sun SW, Ramsbottom MJ, Chang C, Russell J, Cross AH (2002) Dysmyelination revealed through MRI as increased radial (but unchanged axial) diffusion of water. Neuroimage 17:1429–1436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stahl R, Dietrich O, Teipel SJ, Hampel H, Reiser MF, Schoenberg SO (2007) White matter damage in alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: assessment with diffusion-tensor MR imaging and parallel imaging techniques. Radiology 243:483–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stricker NH, Schweinsburg BC, Delano-Wood L, Wierenga CE, Bangen KJ, Haaland KY, Frank LR, Salmon DP, Bondi MW (2009) Decreased white matter integrity in late-myelinating fiber pathways in Alzheimer’s disease supports retrogenesis. Neuroimage 45:10–16PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sui J, Pearlson G, Adali T, Kiehl KA, Caprihan A, Liu J, Yamamoto J, Calhoun VD (2011) Discriminating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder by fusing FMRI and DTI in a multimodal CCA + joint ICA model. Neuroimage 57:839–855PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sullivan EV, Pfefferbaum A (2003) Diffusion tensor imaging in normal aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. Eur J Radiol 45:244–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Taoka T, Iwasaki S, Sakamoto M, Nakagawa H, Fukusumi A, Myochin K, Hirohashi S, Hoshida T, Kichikawa K (2006) Diffusion anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter tracts within the temporal stem in alzheimer disease: evaluation of the “tract of interest” by diffusion tensor tractography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 27:1040–1045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Teipel SJ, Bokde AL, Meindl T, Amaro E Jr, Soldner J, Reiser MF, Herpertz SC, Moller HJ, Hampel H (2010) White matter microstructure underlying default mode network connectivity in the human brain. Neuroimage 49:2021–2032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Teipel SJ, Lerche M, Kilimann I, O’Brien K, Grothe M, Meyer P, Li X, Sänger P, Hauenstein K (2014) Decline of fiber tract integrity over the adult age range—a diffusion spectrum imaging study. J Magn Reson Imaging (in press)Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Teipel SJ, Meindl T, Grinberg L, Heinsen H, Hampel H (2008) Novel MRI techniques in the assessment of dementia. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35(Suppl 1):S58–S69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Teipel SJ, Meindl T, Wagner M, Stieltjes B, Reuter S, Hauenstein KH, Filippi M, Ernemann U, Reiser MF, Hampel H (2010) Longitudinal changes in fiber tract integrity in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment: a DTI follow-up study. J Alzheimers Dis 22:507–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Teipel SJ, Pogarell O, Meindl T, Dietrich O, Sydykova D, Hunklinger U, Georgii B, Mulert C, Reiser MF, Moller HJ, Hampel H (2009) Regional networks underlying interhemispheric connectivity: an EEG and DTI study in healthy ageing and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Hum Brain Mapp 30:2098–2119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Teipel SJ, Reuter S, Stieltjes B, Acosta-Cabronero J, Ernemann U, Fellgiebel A, Filippi M, Frisoni G, Hentschel F, Jessen F, Kloppel S, Meindl T, Pouwels PJ, Hauenstein KH, Hampel H (2011) Multicenter stability of diffusion tensor imaging measures: a European clinical and physical phantom study. Psychiatry Res 194:363–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Teipel SJ, Stahl R, Dietrich O, Schoenberg SO, Perneczky R, Bokde AL, Reiser MF, Moller HJ, Hampel H (2007) Multivariate network analysis of fiber tract integrity in Alzheimer’s disease. Neuroimage 34:985–995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Teipel SJ, Wegrzyn M, Meindl T, Frisoni G, Bokde AL, Fellgiebel A, Filippi M, Hampel H, Kloppel S, Hauenstein K, Ewers M (2012) Anatomical MRI and DTI in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: a European multicenter study. J Alzheimers Dis 31(Suppl 3):S33–S47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tha KK, Terae S, Nakagawa S, Inoue T, Kitagawa N, Kako Y, Nakato Y, Akter Popy K, Fujima N, Zaitsu Y, Yoshida D, Ito YM, Miyamoto T, Koyama T, Shirato H (2013) Impaired integrity of the brain parenchyma in non-geriatric patients with major depressive disorder revealed by diffusion tensor imaging. Psychiatry Res 212:208–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Tuch DS, Salat DH, Wisco JJ, Zaleta AK, Hevelone ND, Rosas HD (2005) Choice reaction time performance correlates with diffusion anisotropy in white matter pathways supporting visuospatial attention. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:12212–12217PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Vederine F-E, Wessa M, Leboyer M, Houenou J (2011) A meta-analysis of whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging studies in bipolar disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:1820–1826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Veer IM, Beckmann CF, van Tol M-J, Ferrarini L, Milles J, Veltman DJ, Aleman A, van Buchem MA, van der Wee NJ, Rombouts SARB (2010) Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression. Front Syst Neurosci 4:1–10Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Versace A, Almeida JRC, Hassel S, Walsh ND, Novelli M, Klein CR, Kupfer DJ, Phillips ML (2008) Elevated left and reduced right orbitomedial prefrontal fractional anisotropy in adults with bipolar disorder revealed by tract-based spatial statistics. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:1041–1052PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Versace A, Almeida JRC, Quevedo K, Thompson WK, Terwilliger RA, Hassel S, Kupfer DJ, Phillips ML (2010) Right orbitofrontal corticolimbic and left corticocortical white matter connectivity differentiate bipolar and unipolar depression. Biol Psychiatry 68:560–567PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Vollmar C, O’Muircheartaigh J, Barker GJ, Symms MR, Thompson P, Kumari V, Duncan JS, Richardson MP, Koepp MJ (2010) Identical, but not the same: intra-site and inter-site reproducibility of fractional anisotropy measures on two 3.0t scanners. Neuroimage 51:1384–1394PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vostrikov VM, Na Uranova, Orlovskaya DD (2007) Deficit of perineuronal oligodendrocytes in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Schizophr Res 94:273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Wedeen VJ, Wang RP, Schmahmann JD, Benner T, Tseng WY, Dai G, Pandya DN, Hagmann P, D’Arceuil H, de Crespigny AJ (2008) Diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging (DSI) tractography of crossing fibers. Neuroimage 41:1267–1277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Weiner MW, Aisen PS, Jack CR, Jr., Jagust WJ, Trojanowski JQ, Shaw L, Saykin AJ, Morris JC, Cairns N, Beckett LA, Toga A, Green R, Walter S, Soares H, Snyder P, Siemers E, Potter W, Cole PE, Schmidt M (2010) The Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging initiative: Progress report and future plans. Alzheimers Dement 6:202–211.e207Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Westin CF, Maier SE, Mamata H, Nabavi A, Jolesz FA, Kikinis R (2002) Processing and visualization for diffusion tensor MRI. Med Image Anal 6:93–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    White T, Nelson M, Lim KO (2008) Diffusion tensor imaging in psychiatric disorders. Top Magn Reson Imaging 19:97–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wiegell MR, Larsson HB, Wedeen VJ (2000) Fiber crossing in human brain depicted with diffusion tensor MR imaging. Radiology 217:897–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wiegell MR, Tuch DS, Larsson HBW, Wedeen VJ (2003) Automatic segmentation of thalamic nuclei from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroimage 19:391–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Womer FY, Kalmar JH, Wang F, Blumberg HP (2009) A ventral prefrontal-amygdala neural system in bipolar disorder: a view from neuroimaging research. Acta Neuropsychiatr 21:228–238PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Xie S, Xiao JX, Gong GL, Zang YF, Wang YH, Wu HK, Jiang XX (2006) Voxel-based detection of white matter abnormalities in mild alzheimer disease. Neurology 66:1845–1849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Yamada K, Mori S, Nakamura H, Ito H, Kizu O, Shiga K, Yoshikawa K, Makino M, Yuen S, Kubota T, Tanaka O, Nishimura T (2003) Fiber-tracking method reveals sensorimotor pathway involvement in stroke patients. Stroke 34:E159–E162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Yasmin H, Nakata Y, Aoki S, Abe O, Sato N, Nemoto K, Arima K, Furuta N, Uno M, Hirai S, Masutani Y, Ohtomo K (2008) Diffusion abnormalities of the uncinate fasciculus in Alzheimer’s disease: diffusion tensor tract-specific analysis using a new method to measure the core of the tract. Neuroradiology 50:293–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zhang Y, Schuff N, Jahng GH, Bayne W, Mori S, Schad L, Mueller S, Du AT, Kramer JH, Yaffe K, Chui H, Jagust WJ, Miller BL, Weiner MW (2007) Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum fibers in mild cognitive impairment and alzheimer disease. Neurology 68:13–19PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan J. Teipel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Martin Walter
    • 3
    • 4
  • Yuttachai Likitjaroen
    • 2
    • 5
  • Peter Schönknecht
    • 6
  • Oliver Gruber
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Psychosomatic MedicineUniversity of RostockRostockGermany
  2. 2.DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative DiseasesRostockGermany
  3. 3.Leibniz Institute for NeurobiologyMagdeburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, King Chulalongkorn Memorial HospitalThai Red Cross SocietyBangkokThailand
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany
  7. 7.Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Centre for Translational Research in Systems Neuroscience and Clinical PsychiatryGeorg August University GoettingenGoettingenGermany

Personalised recommendations