Advertisement

The effects of physical exercise in schizophrenia and affective disorders

  • Berend Malchow
  • Daniela Reich-Erkelenz
  • Viola Oertel-Knöchel
  • Katriona Keller
  • Alkomiet Hasan
  • Andrea Schmitt
  • Thomas W. Scheewe
  • Wiepke Cahn
  • René S. Kahn
  • Peter Falkai
Invited Review

Abstract

Affective and non-affective psychoses are severe and frequent psychiatric disorders. Amongst others, they not only have a profound impact on affected individuals through their symptomatology, but also regarding cognition, brain structure and function. Cognitive impairment influences patients’ quality of life as well as their ability to work and being employed. While exercise therapy has been implemented in the treatment of psychiatric conditions since the days of Kraepelin and Bleuler, the underlying mechanisms have never been systematically studied. Since the early 1990s, studies emerged examining the effect of physical exercise in animal models, revealing stimulation of neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. Based on that body of work, clinical studies have been carried out in both healthy humans and in patient populations. These studies differ with regard to homogenous study samples, sample size, type and duration of exercise, outcome variables and measurement techniques. Based on their review, we draw conclusions regarding recommendations for future research strategies showing that modern therapeutic approaches should include physical exercise as part of a multimodal intervention programme to improve psychopathology and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia and affective disorders.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Affective disorders Physical exercise Symptoms Cognitive remediation MRI 

Notes

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Acil AA, Dogan S, Dogan O (2008) The effects of physical exercises to mental state and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 15:808–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alsuwaidan MT, Kucyi A, Law CW, McIntyre RS (2009) Exercise and bipolar disorder: a review of neurobiological mediators. Neuromol Med 11:328–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Babyak M, Blumenthal JA, Herman S, Khatri P, Doraiswamy M, Moore K, Craighead WE, Baldewicz TT, Krishnan KR (2000) Exercise treatment for major depression: maintenance of therapeutic benefit at 10 months. Psychosom Med 62:633–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baek SS, Jun TW, Kim KJ, Shin MS, Kang SY, Kim CJ (2012) Effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on apoptotic neuronal cell death and cell proliferation of maternal-separated rat pups. Brain Dev 34:45–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ball MP, Coons VB, Buchanan RW (2001) A program for treating olanzapine-related weight gain. Psychiatr Serv 52:967–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beebe LH, Tian L, Morris N, Goodwin A, Allen SS, Kuldau J (2005) Effects of exercise on mental and physical health parameters of persons with schizophrenia. Issues Mental Health Nurs 26:661–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Behere RV, Arasappa R, Jagannathan A, Varambally S, Venkatasubramanian G, Thirthalli J, Subbakrishna DK, Nagendra HR, Gangadhar BN (2011) Effect of yoga therapy on facial emotion recognition deficits, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 123:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biedermann S, Fuss J, Zheng L, Sartorius A, Falfan-Melgoza C, Demirakca T, Gass P, Ende G, Weber-Fahr W (2012) In vivo voxel based morphometry: detection of increased hippocampal volume and decreased glutamate levels in exercising mice. Neuroimage 61:1206–1212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Moore KA, Craighead WE, Herman S, Khatri P, Waugh R, Napolitano MA, Forman LM, Appelbaum M, Doraiswamy PM, Krishnan KR (1999) Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression. Arch Intern Med 159:2349–2356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blumenthal JA, Sherwood A, Rogers SD, Babyak MA, Doraiswamy PM, Watkins L, Hoffman BM, O’Connell C, Johnson JJ, Patidar SM, Waugh R, Hinderliter A (2007) Understanding prognostic benefits of exercise and antidepressant therapy for persons with depression and heart disease: the upbeat study—rationale, design, and methodological issues. Clin Trials (London, England) 4:548–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bodin T, Martinsen EW (2004) Mood and self-efficacy during acute exercise in clinical depression. A randomized, controlled study. J Sport Exercise Psychol 26:623–633Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borg G (1970) Perceived exertion as an indicator of somatic stress. Scand J Rehabil Med 2:92–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brown S, Birtwistle J, Roe L, Thompson C (1999) The unhealthy lifestyle of people with schizophrenia. Psychol Med 29:697–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown S, Inskip H, Barraclough B (2000) Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 177:212–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cairney J, Veldhuizen S, Faulkner G, Schaffer A, Rodriguez C (2009) Bipolar disorder and leisure-time physical activity: results from a national survey of Canadians. Mental Health Phys Activity 2:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Callaghan P (2004) Exercise: a neglected intervention in mental health care? J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 11:476–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chalder M, Wiles NJ, Campbell J, Hollinghurst SP, Haase AM, Taylor AH, Fox KR, Costelloe C, Searle A, Baxter H, Winder R, Wright C, Turner KM, Calnan M, Lawlor DA, Peters TJ, Sharp DJ, Montgomery AA, Lewis G (2012) Facilitated physical activity as a treatment for depressed adults: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 344:e2758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chamove AS (1986) Positive short-term effects of activity on behaviour in chronic schizophrenic patients. British J Clin Psychol/British Psychol Soc 25(Pt 2):125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Colcombe SJ, Kramer AF, Erickson KI, Scalf P, McAuley E, Cohen NJ, Webb A, Jerome GJ, Marquez DX, Elavsky S (2004) Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:3316–3321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Leon J, Diaz FJ (2005) A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophr Res 76:135–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Deslandes A, Veiga H, Cagy M, Fiszman A, Piedade R, Ribeiro P (2004) Quantitative electroencephalography (qeeg) to discriminate primary degenerative dementia from major depressive disorder (depression). Arq Neuropsiquiatr 62:44–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Deslandes AC, de Moraes H, Pompeu FA, Ribeiro P, Cagy M, Capitao C et al (2008) Electroencephalographic frontal asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Biol Psychol 79:317–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deslandes AC, Moraes H, Alves H, Pompeu FA, Silveira H, Mouta R, Arcoverde C, Ribeiro P, Cagy M, Piedade RA, Laks J, Coutinho ES (2010) Effect of aerobic training on eeg alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a 1-year follow-up study. Braz J Med Biol Res 43:585–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dickinson D, Ramsey ME, Gold JM (2007) Overlooking the obvious: a meta-analytic comparison of digit symbol coding tasks and other cognitive measures in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:532–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dimeo F, Bauer M, Varahram I, Proest G, Halter U (2001) Benefits from aerobic exercise in patients with major depression: a pilot study. Br J Sports Med 35:114–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dishman RK, Berthoud HR, Booth FW, Cotman CW, Edgerton VR, Fleshner MR et al (2006) Neurobiology of exercise. Obesity 14:345–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dodd KJ, Duffy S, Stewart JA, Impey J, Taylor N (2011) A small group aerobic exercise programme that reduces body weight is feasible in adults with severe chronic schizophrenia: a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil 33:1222–1229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Doyne EJ, Ossip-Klein DJ, Bowman ED, Osborn KM, McDougall-Wilson IB, Neimeyer RA (1987) Running versus weight lifting in the treatment of depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 55:748–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dunn A, Trivedi M, O’Neal H (2001) Physical activity dose-response effects on outcomes of depression and anxiety. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:587–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dunn AL, Trivedi MH, Kampert JB, Clark CG, Chambliss HO (2005) Exercise treatment for depression: efficacy and dose response. Am J Prev Med 28:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Duraiswamy G, Thirthalli J, Nagendra HR, Gangadhar BN (2007) Yoga therapy as an add-on treatment in the management of patients with schizophrenia–a randomized controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand 116:226–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ellis N, Crone D, Davey R, Grogan S (2007) Exercise interventions as an adjunct therapy for psychosis: a critical review. British J Clin Psychol/British Psychol Soc 46:95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Engelhardt M, Neumann G (1994) Sports medicine. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, MunichGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, Chaddock L, Kim JS, Heo S, Alves H, White SM, Wojcicki TR, Mailey E, Vieira VJ, Martin SA, Pence BD, Woods JA, McAuley E, Kramer AF (2011) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:3017–3022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fabel K, Kempermann G (2008) Physical activity and the regulation of neurogenesis in the adult and aging brain. Neuromolecular Med 10:59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Falkai P, Malchow B, Wobrock T, Gruber O, Schmitt A, Honer WG, Pajonk FG, Sun F, Cannon TD (2012) The effect of aerobic exercise on cortical architecture in patients with chronic schizophrenia: a randomized controlled MRI study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci [Epub ahead of print]. PubMed PMID:23161338Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Farmer ME, Locke BZ, Moscicki EK, Dannenberg AL, Larson DB, Radloff LS (1988) Physical activity and depressive symptoms: the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Am J Epidemiol 128:1340–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Floel A, Ruscheweyh R, Kruger K, Willemer C, Winter B, Volker K, Lohmann H, Zitzmann M, Mooren F, Breitenstein C, Knecht S (2010) Physical activity and memory functions: are neurotrophins and cerebral gray matter volume the missing link? Neuroimage 49:2756–2763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fogarty M, Happell B (2005) Exploring the benefits of an exercise program for people with schizophrenia: a qualitative study. Issues Mental Health Nurs 26:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH (2002) Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among us adults: findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. JAMA 287:356–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fuss J, Ben Abdallah NM, Hensley FW, Weber KJ, Hellweg R, Gass P (2010) Deletion of running-induced hippocampal neurogenesis by irradiation prevents development of an anxious phenotype in mice. PloS One 5(9)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fuss J, Ben Abdallah NM, Vogt MA, Touma C, Pacifici PG, Palme R, Witzemann V, Hellweg R, Gass P (2010) Voluntary exercise induces anxiety-like behavior in adult c57bl/6j mice correlating with hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampus 20:364–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Galper DI, Trivedi MH, Barlow CE, Dunn AL, Kampert JB (2006) Inverse association between physical inactivity and mental health in men and women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:173–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, Nieman DC, Swain DP (2011) American college of sports medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1334–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Goff DC, Sullivan LM, McEvoy JP, Meyer JM, Nasrallah HA, Daumit GL, Lamberti S, D’Agostino RB, Stroup TS, Davis S, Lieberman JA (2005) A comparison of ten-year cardiac risk estimates in schizophrenia patients from the catie study and matched controls. Schizophr Res 80:45–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gold JM, Goldberg RW, McNary SW, Dixon LB, Lehman AF (2002) Cognitive correlates of job tenure among patients with severe mental illness. Am J Psychiatry 159:1395–1402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goldberg TE, Goldman RS, Burdick KE, Malhotra AK, Lencz T, Patel RC, Woerner MG, Schooler NR, Kane JM, Robinson DG (2007) Cognitive improvement after treatment with second-generation antipsychotic medications in first-episode schizophrenia: is it a practice effect? Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:1115–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gorczynski P, Faulkner G (2010) Exercise therapy for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 36:665–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Green MF (1996) What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? Am J Psychiatry 153:321–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Green MF, Kern RS, Braff DL, Mintz J (2000) Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the “right stuff”? Schizophr Bull 26:119–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Greenwood BN, Foley TE, Day HE, Campisi J, Hammack SH, Campeau S, Maier SF, Fleshner M (2003) Freewheel running prevents learned helplessness/behavioral depression: role of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons. J Neurosci 23:2889–2898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hall EE, Ekkekakis P, Petruzzello SJ (2007) Regional brain activity and strenuous exercise: predicting affective responses using eeg asymmetry. Biol Psychol 75:194–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hall EE, Petruzzello SJ (1999) Frontal asymmetry, dispositional affect and physical activity in older adults. J Aging Phys Activ 7:76–90Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hamilton M (1960) A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 23:56–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Harris AH, Cronkite R, Moos R (2006) Physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a 10-year cohort study of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 93:79–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harris EC, Barraclough B (1998) Excess mortality of mental disorder. Br J Psychiatry 173:11–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hasan A, Falkai P, Wobrock T, Lieberman J, Glenthoj B, Gattaz WF, Thibaut F, Moller HJ (2012) World federation of societies of biological psychiatry (wfsbp) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 1: update 2012 on the acute treatment of schizophrenia and the management of treatment resistance. World J Biol Psychiatry 13:318–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hautzinger M, Keller F, Kühner C (2006) Das beck depressionsinventar ii. Deutsche bearbeitung und handbuch zum bdi ii. Harcourt Test Services, Frankfurt a. MGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Heggelund J, Nilsberg GE, Hoff J, Morken G, Helgerud J (2011) Effects of high aerobic intensity training in patients with schizophrenia: a controlled trial. Nord J Psychiatry 65:269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Heh SS, Huang LH, Ho SM, Fu YY, Wang LL (2008) Effectiveness of an exercise support program in reducing the severity of postnatal depression in Taiwanese women. Birth (Berkeley, Calif) 35:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heinrichs RW, Zakzanis KK (1998) Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: a quantitative review of the evidence. Neuropsychology 12:426–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Helgerud J, Hoydal K, Wang E, Karlsen T, Berg P, Bjerkaas M, Simonsen T, Helgesen C, Hjorth N, Bach R, Hoff J (2007) Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve vo2max more than moderate training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:665–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Heyn P, Abreu BC, Ottenbacher KJ (2004) The effects of exercise training on elderly persons with cognitive impairment and dementia: a meta-analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:1694–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Heyn PC, Johnson KE, Kramer AF (2008) Endurance and strength training outcomes on cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults: a meta-analysis. J Nutr Health Aging 12:401–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hoff AL, Sakuma M, Wieneke M, Horon R, Kushner M, DeLisi LE (1999) Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 156:1336–1341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hoff AL, Svetina C, Shields G, Stewart J, DeLisi LE (2005) Ten year longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning subsequent to a first episode of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 78:27–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hoffman BM, Babyak MA, Craighead WE, Sherwood A, Doraiswamy PM, Coons MJ, Blumenthal JA (2011) Exercise and pharmacotherapy in patients with major depression: one-year follow-up of the smile study. Psychosom Med 73:127–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hoffman BM, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Smith PJ, Rogers SD, Doraiswamy PM, Sherwood A (2008) Exercise fails to improve neurocognition in depressed middle-aged and older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1344–1352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hollmann W (1963) Höchst- und dauerleistungsfähigkeit des sportlers. Barth, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hollmann W, Hettinger T (2000) Sportmedizin. Grundlagen für arbeit, training und präventivmedizin Schattauer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hopkins ME, Davis FC, Vantieghem MR, Whalen PJ, Bucci DJ (2012) Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect. Neuroscience 215:59–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hottenrott K, Neumann G (2010) Methods of endurance training. Verlag Karl Hofmann, SchorndorfGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Hunsberger JG, Newton SS, Bennett AH, Duman CH, Russell DS, Salton SR, Duman RS (2007) Antidepressant actions of the exercise-regulated gene vgf. Nat Med 13:1476–1482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jablensky A (2000) Epidemiology of schizophrenia: the global burden of disease and disability. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 250:274–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jablensky A (1995) Schizophrenia: recent epidemiologic issues. Epidemiol Rev 17:10–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jerome J, Young DR, Dalcin A et al (2009) Physical activity levels of persons with mental illness attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Schizophr Res 108:252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jerstad SJ, Boutelle KN, Ness KK, Stice E (2010) Prospective reciprocal relations between physical activity and depression in female adolescents. J Consult Clin Psychol 78:268–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Keefe RS (2007) Cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia: effects and treatment. J Clin Psychiatry 68(Suppl 14):8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kempermann G, Fabel K, Ehninger D, Babu H, Leal-Galicia P, Garthe A, Wolf SA (2010) Why and how physical activity promotes experience-induced brain plasticity. Frontiers Neurosci 4:189Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kendler KS, Gallagher TJ, Abelson JM, Kessler RC (1996) Lifetime prevalence, demographic risk factors, and diagnostic validity of nonaffective psychosis as assessed in a us community sample. The national comorbidity survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:1022–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kerse N, Hayman KJ, Moyes SA, Peri K, Robinson E, Dowell A, Kolt GS, Elley CR, Hatcher S, Kiata L, Wiles J, Keeling S, Parsons J, Arroll B (2010) Home-based activity program for older people with depressive symptoms: dellite–a randomized controlled trial. Ann Family Med 8:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Killackey E, Anda AL, Gibbs M, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Thompson A, Sun P, Baksheev GN (2011) Using internet enabled mobile devices and social networking technologies to promote exercise as an intervention for young first episode psychosis patients. BMC Psychiatry 11:80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kirkcaldy BD, Shephard RJ, Siefen RG (2002) The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37:544–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kirkpatrick B, Buchanan RW, McKenney PD, Alphs LD, Carpenter WT Jr (1989) The schedule for the deficit syndrome: an instrument for research in schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 30:119–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Knubben K, Reischies FM, Adli M, Schlattmann P, Bauer M, Dimeo F (2007) A randomised, controlled study on the effects of a short-term endurance training programme in patients with major depression. Br J Sports Med 41:29–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Krogh J, Nordentoft M, Sterne JA, Lawlor DA (2011) The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Psychiatry 72:529–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kubesch S, Bretschneider V, Freudenmann R, Weidenhammer N, Lehmann M, Spitzer M, Gron G (2003) Aerobic endurance exercise improves executive functions in depressed patients. J Clin Psychiatry 64:1005–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kucyi A, Alsuwaidan MT, Liauw SS, McIntyre RS (2010) Aerobic physical exercise as a possible treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Postgrad Med 122:107–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kutzner I, Heinlein B, Graichen F, Rohlmann A, Halder AM, Beier A, Bergmann G (2012) Loading of the knee joint during ergometer cycling: telemetric in vivo data. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 42:1032–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Laboratories ACoPSfCPF (2002) Ats statement: guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 166:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lampinen P, Heikkinen E (2003) Reduced mobility and physical activity as predictors of depressive symtposm among community-dwelling older adults: an eight-year follow-up study. Aging Clin Exp Res 15:205–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lindamer LA, McKibbin C, Norman GJ, Jordan L, Harrison K, Abeyesinhe S, Patrick K (2008) Assessment of physical activity in middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 104:294–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mabandla MV, Kellaway LA, Daniels WM, Russell VA (2009) Effect of exercise on dopamine neuron survival in prenatally stressed rats. Metab Brain Dis 24:525–539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Martinsen EW, Hoffart A, Solberg O (1989) Comparing aerobic with nonaerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a randomized trial. Compr Psychiatry 30:324–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Martinsen EW, Medhus A, Sandvik L (1985) Effects of aerobic exercise on depression: a controlled study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 291:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Marzolini S, Jensen B, Melville P (2009) Feasibility and effects of a group-based resistance and aerobic exercise program for individuals with severe schizophrenia: a multidisciplinary approach. Mental Health Phys Activity 2:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mather AS, Rodriguez C, Guthrie MF, McHarg AM, Reid IC, McMurdo ME (2002) Effects of exercise on depressive symptoms in older adults with poorly responsive depressive disorder: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 180:411–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    McGrath J, Saha S, Chant D, Welham J (2008) Schizophrenia: a concise overview of incidence, prevalence, and mortality. Epidemiol Rev 30:67–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    McKercher CM, Schmidt MD, Sanderson KA, Patton GC, Dwyer T, Venn AJ (2009) Physical activity and depression in young adults. Am J Prev Med 36:161–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mead GE, Morley W, Campbell P, Greig CA, McMurdo M, Lawlor DA (2009) Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3):CD004366. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004366.pub4
  101. 101.
    Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Greenberg PE, Hirschfeld RM, Petukhova M, Kessler RC (2007) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:543–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Methapatara W, Srisurapanont M (2011) Pedometer walking plus motivational interviewing program for thai schizophrenic patients with obesity or overweight: a 12-week, randomized, controlled trial. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 65:374–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Moraes H, Deslandes A, Ferreira C, Pompeu FAMS, Ribeiro P, Laks J (2007) Physical exercise in the treatment of depression in the elderly: a systematic review. Rev Psiquiatr R Gd Sul 29:79Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Morroni F (2011) Repeated physical training and environmental enrichment induce neurogenesis and synaptogenesis following neuronal injury in an inducible mouse model. J Behav Brain Sci 01:199–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Murray CJ, Lopez AD (1996) Evidence-based health policy–lessons from the global burden of disease study. Science 274:740–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Neumann G, Schüler KP (1994) Diagnostics in sports medicine. Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Leipzig Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Neumann NU, Frasch K (2008) New aspects regarding physical exercise in psychiatry-clinical and scientific basics. Dtsch Z Sportmed 59:28–33Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Oliff HS, Berchtold NC, Isackson P, Cotman CW (1998) Exercise-induced regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) transcripts in the rat hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 61:147–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Pajonk FG, Wobrock T, Gruber O, Scherk H, Berner D, Kaizl I, Kierer A, Muller S, Oest M, Meyer T, Backens M, Schneider-Axmann T, Thornton AE, Honer WG, Falkai P (2010) Hippocampal plasticity in response to exercise in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:133–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pereira AC, Huddleston DE, Brickman AM, Sosunov AA, Hen R, McKhann GM, Sloan R, Gage FH, Brown TR, Small SA (2007) An in vivo correlate of exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5638–5643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Petruzzello SJ, Hall EE, Ekkekakis P (2001) Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness. Psychophysiology 38:99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Petruzzello SJ, Landers DM (1994) State anxiety reduction and exercise: does hemispheric activation reflect such changes? Med Sci Sports Exerc 26:1028–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Petruzzello SJ, Tate AK (1997) Brain activation, affect, and aerobic exercise: an examination of both state-independent and state-dependent relationships. Psychophysiology 34:527–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Phelan M, Slade M, Thornicroft G, Dunn G, Holloway F, Wykes T, Strathdee G, Loftus L, McCrone P, Hayward P (1995) The Camberwell assessment of need: the validity and reliability of an instrument to assess the needs of people with severe mental illness. Br J Psychiatry 167:589–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Poulin MJ, Chaput JP, Simard V, Vincent P, Bernier J, Gauthier Y, Lanctot G, Saindon J, Vincent A, Gagnon S, Tremblay A (2007) Management of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: prospective naturalistic study of the effectiveness of a supervised exercise programme. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 41:980–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Rhyu IJ, Bytheway JA, Kohler SJ, Lange H, Lee KJ, Boklewski J, McCormick K, Williams NI, Stanton GB, Greenough WT, Cameron JL (2010) Effects of aerobic exercise training on cognitive function and cortical vascularity in monkeys. Neuroscience 167:1239–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rimer J, Dwan K, Lawlor DA, Greig CA, McMurdo M, Morley W, Mead GE (2012) Exercise for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 7:CD004366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Roine E, Roine RP, Rasanen P, Vuori I, Sintonen H, Saarto T (2009) Cost-effectiveness of interventions based on physical exercise in the treatment of various diseases: a systematic literature review. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 25:427–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sahay A, Scobie KN, Hill AS, O’Carroll CM, Kheirbek MA, Burghardt NS, Fenton AA, Dranovsky A, Hen R (2011) Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis is sufficient to improve pattern separation. Nature 472:466–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Scheewe TW, Backx FJ, Takken T, Jörg F, van Strater AC, Kroes AG, Kahn RS, Cahn W (2013) Exercise therapy improves mental and physical health in schizophrenia: a randomised controlled trial. Acta Psychiatr Scand 127(6):464–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Scheewe TW, van Haren NE, Sarkisyan G, Schnack HG, Brouwer RM, de Glint M, Hulshoff Pol HE, Backx FJ, Kahn RS, Cahn W (2013) Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23(7):675–685Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schneider B, Prvulovic D, Oertel-Knochel V, Knochel C, Reinke B, Grexa M, Weber B, Hampel H (2011) Biomarkers for major depression and its delineation from neurodegenerative disorders. Prog Neurobiol 95:703–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Silveira H, Deslandes AC, de Moraes H, Mouta R, Ribeiro P, Piedade R, Laks J (2010) Effects of exercise on electroencephalographic mean frequency in depressed elderly subjects. Neuropsychobiology 61:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Singh NA, Clements KM, Fiatarone MA (1997) A randomized controlled trial of the effect of exercise on sleep. Sleep 20:95–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sjosten N, Vaapio S, Kivela SL (2008) The effects of fall prevention trials on depressive symptoms and fear of falling among the aged: a systematic review. Aging Mental Health 12:30–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Srihari VH, Phutane VH, Ozkan B, Chwastiak L, Ratliff JC, Woods SW, Tek C (2013) Cardiovascular mortality in schizophrenia: defining a critical period for prevention. Schizophr Res 146:64–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Stathopoulou G, Powers M, Berry A et al (2006) Exercise interventions for mental health: a quantitative and qualitative review. Clin PSychol Sci Pract 13:180–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Strassnig M, Brar JS, Ganguli R (2006) Increased caffeine and nicotine consumption in community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 86:269–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Strassnig MT, Newcomer JW, Harvey PD (2012) Exercise improves physical capacity in obese patients with schizophrenia: pilot study. Schizophr Res 141:284–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Strohle A, Hofler M, Pfister H, Muller AG, Hoyer J, Wittchen HU, Lieb R (2007) Physical activity and prevalence and incidence of mental disorders in adolescents and young adults. Psychol Med 37:1657–1666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sui X, Laditka JN, Church TS, Hardin JW, Chase N, Davis K, Blair SN (2009) Prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and depressive symptoms in women and men. J Psychiatr Res 43:546–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Takahashi H, Kato M, Sassa T, Shibuya T, Koeda M, Yahata N, Matsuura M, Asai K, Suhara T, Okubo Y (2010) Functional deficits in the extrastriate body area during observation of sports-related actions in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 36:642–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Takahashi H, Sassa T, Shibuya T, Kato M, Koeda M, Murai T, Matsuura M, Asai K, Suhara T, Okubo Y (2012) Effects of sports participation on psychiatric symptoms and brain activations during sports observation in schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry 2:e96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Tay YH, Nurjono M, Lee J (2013) Increased Framingham 10-year cvd risk in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 147:187–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Taylor ED, Theim KR, Mirch MC, Ghorbani S, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Adler-Wailes DC, Brady S, Reynolds JC, Calis KA, Yanovski JA (2006) Orthopedic complications of overweight in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 117:2167–2174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Torres IJ, Boudreau VG, Yatham LN (2007) Neuropsychological functioning in euthymic bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 116(Suppl 434):17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Trappe HJ, Lollgen H (2000) guidelines for ergometry. German society of cardiology—heart and cardiovascular research. Z Kardiol 89:821–831PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ussher M, Stanbury L, Cheeseman V, Faulkner G (2007) Physical activity preferences and perceived barriers to activity among those with severe mental illness in the United Kingdom. Psychiatr Serv 58:405–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Van Citters AD, Pratt SI, Jue K et al (2010) A pilot evaluation of the in shape individualized health promotion intervention for adults with mental illness. Community Ment Health J 46:540–552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    van Dam RM, Li T, Spiegelman D, Franco OH, Hu FB (2008) Combined impact of lifestyle factors on mortality: prospective cohort study in us women. BMJ 337:a1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    van Praag H, Christie BR, Sejnowski TJ, Gage FH (1999) Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:13427–13431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    van Praag H, Kempermann G, Gage FH (1999) Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nat Neurosci 2:266–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    van Praag H, Shubert T, Zhao C, Gage FH (2005) Exercise enhances learning and hippocampal neurogenesis in aged mice. J Neurosci 25:8680–8685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    van Uffelen JG, Chinapaw MJ, Hopman-Rock M, van Mechelen W (2009) Feasibility and effectiveness of a walking program for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment. J Aging Phys Activity 17:398–415Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    van Welie H, Derks EM, Verweij KH, de Valk HW, Kahn RS, Cahn W (2013) The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increased in relatives of patients with a non-affective psychotic disorder. Schizophr Res 143:354–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Vancampfort D, Correll CU, Probst M, Sienaert P, Wyckaert S, De Herdt A, Knapen J, De Wachter D, De Hert M (2013) A review of physical activity correlates in patients with bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord 145(3):285–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Vancampfort D, Correll CU, Scheewe TW, Probst M, De Herdt A, Knapen J, De Hert M (2013) Progressive muscle relaxation in persons with schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Clin Rehabil 27(4):291–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Vancampfort D, Probst M, Scheewe T, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M (2012) The functional exercise capacity is correlated with global functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 125:382–387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M (2012) Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Acta Psychiatr Scand 126:12–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Vasques PE, Moraes H, Silveira H, Deslandes AC, Laks J (2011) Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil) 66:1553–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Visceglia E, Lewis S (2011) Yoga therapy as an adjunctive treatment for schizophrenia: a randomized, controlled pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 17:601–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wang J, Fan X, Liu D, Yi Z, Freudenreich O, Goff D, Henderson DC (2012) Both physical activity and food intake are associated with metabolic risks in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 140:260–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Warren KR, Ball MP, Feldman S, Liu F, McMahon RP, Kelly DL (2011) Exercise program adherence using a 5-kilometer (5 k) event as an achievable goal in people with schizophrenia. Biol Res Nurs 13:383–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Weinstein AA, Deuster PA, Francis JL, Beadling C, Kop WJ (2010) The role of depression in short-term mood and fatigue responses to acute exercise. Int J Behav Med 17:51–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TY, Lee MC, Chan HT, Tsao CK, Tsai SP, Wu X (2011) Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 378:1244–1253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Williams DR, Gonzalez HM, Neighbors H, Nesse R, Abelson JM, Sweetman J, Jackson JS (2007) Prevalence and distribution of major depressive disorder in african americans, caribbean blacks, and non-hispanic whites: results from the national survey of american life. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:305–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wobrock T, Hasan A, Falkai P (2012) Innovative treatment approaches in schizophrenia enhancing neuroplasticity: aerobic exercise, erythropoietin and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 13:1595–1605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Wolf SA, Melnik A, Kempermann G (2011) Physical exercise increases adult neurogenesis and telomerase activity, and improves behavioral deficits in a mouse model of schizophrenia. Brain Behav Immun 25:971–980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Wolff E, Gaudlitz K, von Lindenberger BL, Plag J, Heinz A, Strohle A (2011) Exercise and physical activity in mental disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 261(Suppl 2):S186–S191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wright KA, Everson-Hock ES, Taylor AH (2009) The effects of physical activity on physical and mental health among individuals with bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Mental Health Phys Activity 2:86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Yogaratnam J, Biswas N, Vadivel R, Jacob R (2013) Metabolic complications of schizophrenia and antipsychotic medications–an updated review. East Asian Arch Psychiatry 23(1):21–28PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berend Malchow
    • 1
  • Daniela Reich-Erkelenz
    • 1
  • Viola Oertel-Knöchel
    • 2
  • Katriona Keller
    • 3
  • Alkomiet Hasan
    • 1
  • Andrea Schmitt
    • 1
    • 5
  • Thomas W. Scheewe
    • 4
    • 6
  • Wiepke Cahn
    • 4
  • René S. Kahn
    • 4
  • Peter Falkai
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyLudwig-Maximilians-University MunichMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyUniversity of Frankfurt/MainFrankfurtGermany
  3. 3.Department of Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine, Institute of Sport ScienceUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute for NeuroscienceUniversity Medical Center UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Laboratory of Neuroscience (LIM27), Institute of PsychiatryUniversity of Sao PauloSão PauloBrazil
  6. 6.Windesheim University of Applied SciencesZwolleThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations