Polish version of the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) scale: the results in treatment-resistant depression

  • Janusz K. Rybakowski
  • Jules Angst
  • Dominika Dudek
  • Tomasz Pawlowski
  • Dorota Lojko
  • Marcin Siwek
  • Andrzej Kiejna
Original Paper


We performed the factor analysis of the Polish version of the Hypomania Check List (HCL-32) scale and assessed the utility of HCL-32 in discriminating patients with treatment-resistant and treatment non-resistant depression. The study included 1,051 patients with single or recurrent depressive episode among which 569 met the criteria for treatment-resistant depression. The Polish version of HCL-32 was employed to all patients. The Cronbach’s alpha for entire scale was 0.93 which indicates high degree of consistency. The factor analysis of the scale yielded three factors with item loadings of 0.4 or more. Factor 1, comprising ten items connected with elevated mood and increased activity explained more than half of total variance, Factor 2 (two items) was connected with sexual activity, and factor 3 (three items) with irritability. The mean score of HCL-32 was significantly higher in treatment-resistant versus non-resistant depression (11.9 ± 8.3 vs. 8.5 ± 7.7, respectively, P < 0.001). Also, the percentage of patients having positive response to 14 or more items of the scale was significantly higher in treatment-resistant than in non-resistant depression (43.9 vs. 30.0%, respectively, P < 0.001). Therefore, using Polish version of HCL-32 we have confirmed the association between bipolarity and worse response to antidepressant drugs in patients with mood disorders.


Hypomania Checklist -32 Polish version Treatment-resistant depression Bipolarity 



The study was supported by scientific grant provided by Sanofi-Aventis Poland. The authors thank Ewa Kraszewska from Statmed, Poland, for excellent statistical work, and Dr Alex Gamma from Zurich University, for statistical consultation.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janusz K. Rybakowski
    • 1
  • Jules Angst
    • 2
  • Dominika Dudek
    • 3
  • Tomasz Pawlowski
    • 4
  • Dorota Lojko
    • 1
  • Marcin Siwek
    • 3
  • Andrzej Kiejna
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Adult PsychiatryPoznan University of Medical SciencesPoznanPoland
  2. 2.Zurich University Psychiatric HospitalZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Adult Psychiatry, Collegium MedicumJagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryMedical UniversityWroclawPoland

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