Modern modularity and the road towards a modular psychiatry

Article

Abstract

We propose to use modules representing functional subunits of the brain as the substrates of pathogenetic factors in mental disorders. This approach is based on scientific evidence from neurophysiology and cognitive psychology regarding the organisation of the human brain in functionally discernible, not necessarily temporally or spatially stable subunits, which are interconnected in complex, often multilayered networks of neuronal circuits. Such a definition would reconcile modern network theories of brain function with localizationist models. Module-based diagnosis and therapy of mental disorders will be the goal of a modular psychiatry, which has the advantage that it is founded in neuroscientific evidence and does not rely on arbitrary definitions of mental disorders based mainly on clinical empiricism.

Keywords

modular psychiatry neuroscience nosology modularity 

References

  1. 1.
    Achard S, Salvador R, Whitcher B, Suckling J, Bullmore E (2006) A resilient, low-frequency, small-world human brain functional network with highly connected association cortical hubs. J Neurosci 26:63–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson ML (2007) The massive redeployment hypothesis and the functional topography of the brain. Philos Psychol 20:143–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atran S (2001) The case for modularity: sin or salvation? Evol Cogn 7:1–10Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barrett HC, Kurzban R (2006) Modularity in cognition: framing the debate. Psychol Rev 113:628–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bluhm RL, Miller J, Lanius RA, Osuch EA, Boksman K, Neufeld RW, Théberge J, Schaefer B, Williamson P (2007) Spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the BOLD signal in schizophrenic patients: anomalies in the default network. Schizophr Bull 33(4):1004–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borowksy R, Loehr J, Friesen CK, Kraushaar G, Kingstone A, Sarty G (2005) Modularity and intersection of “what”, “where” and “how” processing of visual stimuli: a new method of fMRI localization. Brain Topogr 18:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borowsky R, Esopenko C, Cummine J, Sarty GE (2007) Neural representations of visual words and objects: a functional MRI study on the modularity of reading and object processing. Brain Topogr 20:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cabeza R, Nyberg L (2000) Imaging cognition II: an empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies. J Cogn Neurosci 12(1):1–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Calabretta R, Parisi D (2005). Evolutionary connectionism and mind/brain modularity. In: Callebaut W, Rasskin-Gutmann D (eds) Modularity. Understanding the development and evolution of natural complex systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 309–330Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Casanova MF (2003) Modular concepts of brain organization and the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions. Psychiatr Res 118:101–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Casanova MF (2007) Schizophrenia seen as a deficit in the modulation of cortical minicolumns by monoaminergic systems. Int Rev Psychiatry 19:361–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen ZJ, He Y, Rosa-Neto P, Germann J, Evans AC (2008) Revealing modular architecture of human brain structural networks by using cortical thickness from MRI. Cereb Cortex doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn003. Accessed 9 May 2008
  13. 13.
    Chiandetti C, Vallortigara G (2008) Is there an innate geometric module? Effects of experience with angular geometric cues on spatial re-orientation based on the shape fo the environment. Anim Cogn 11:139–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chomsky N (1984) Modular approaches to the study of the mind. San Diego State University Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clauset A, Moore C, Newman MEJ (2008) Hierarchical structure and the prediction of missing links in networks. Nature 453:98–101. doi:10.1038/nature06830. Accessed 9 May 2008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cleghorn JM, Albert ML (1990) Modular disjunction in schizophrenia: a framework for a pathological psychophysiology. In: Kales A, Stefanis CN, Talbot J (eds) Recent advances in schizophrenia. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Coltheart M (1999) Modularity and cognition. Trends Cogn Sci 3:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cosmides L, Tooby J (1999) Toward an evolutionary taxonomy of treatable conditions. J Abnorm Psychol 108:453–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dailey MN, Cottrell GW (1999) Organization of face and object recognition in modular neural network models. Neural Netw 12:1053–1073PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    David A (2003) Ten books. Br J Psychiatr 183:263–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duchaine B, Cosmides L, Tooby J (2001) Evolutionary psychology and the brain. Curr Op Neurobiol 11:225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Erdi P, Kiss T (2001) The complexity of the brain: structural, functional, and dynamic modules. In: Wermter S, Austin J, Willshaw D (eds) Emergent neural computational architectures based on neuroscience. Towards neuroscience-inspired computing. Springer, Berlin, pp 203–211Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Felleman DJ, Xiao Y, McClendon E (1997) Modular organization of occipito-temporal pathways: cortical connections between visual area 4 and visual area 2 and posterior inferotemporal ventral area in macaque monkeys. J Neurosci 17:3185–3200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fodor J (1983) The modularity of mind. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Frégnac Y, Blatow M, Changeux JP, DeFelipe J, Lansner A, Maass W, McCormick DA, Michel CM, Monyer H, Szathmary E, Yuste R (2006) Group report: neocortical microcircuits. UPs and DOWNs in cortical computation. In: Grillner S, Graybiel AM (eds) Microcircuits. The interface between neurons and global brain function. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 393–433Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gaebel W, Wölwer W, Zielasek J (2006) Von der deskriptiven zur funktionalen Psychiatrie. Auf dem Weg zu einer modularen Psychiatrie. Die Psychiatrie 4:221–232Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Garrity AG, Pearlson GD, McKiernan K, Lloyd D, Kiehl KA, Calhoun VD (2007) Aberrant “default mode” functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 164:450–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Geary DC, Huffman KJ (2002) Brain and cognitive evolution: forms of modularity and functions of mind. Psychol Bull 128:667–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gentner R, Classen J (2006) Modular organization of finger movements by the human central nervous system. Neuron 52:731–742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Grossman M, Murray R, Koenig P, Ash S, Cross K, Moore P, Troiani V (2007) Verb acquisition and representation in Alzheimer′s disease. Neuropsychology 45:2508–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hartwell LJ, Hopfield JJ, Leibler S, Murray AW (1999) From molecular to modular cell biology. Nature 402(Supp):C47–C51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hermer L, Spelke E (1996) Modularity and development: the case of spatial reorientation. Cognition 61(3):195–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hermer-Vazquez L, Hermer-Vazquez R, Chapin JK (2007) The reach-to-grasp-food task for rats: a rare case of modularity in animal behaviour? Behav Brain Res 177:322–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hilgetag CC, Kaiser M (2004) Clustered organization of cortical connectivity. Neuroinformatics 2:353–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hoffmann S, Tittgemeyer M, von Cramon DY (2007) Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol 20:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jablensky A (2006) Subtyping schizophrenia: implications for genetic research. Mol Psychiatry 11:815–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Karmiloff-Smith A (1992) Beyond modularity. A developmental perspective on cognitive science. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kraepelin E (1920). Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins. Z ges Neurol Psychiatr 62:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Leise EM (1990) Modular construction of nervous systems: a basic principle of design for invertebrates and vertebrates. Brain Res Rev 15:1–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Levy Y (1996) Modularity of language reconsidered. Brain Lang 55:240–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu Y, Liang M, Zhou Y, He Y, Hao Y, Song M, Yu C, Liu H, Liu Z, Jiang T (2008) Disrupted small-world networks in schizophrenia. Brain 131:945–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lloyd D (2008) Through a glass darkly: Schizophrenia and functional brain imaging. Philos Psychiatr Psychol (in press) Accessible at http://www.trincoll.edu/∼dlloyd/sz%20and% 20functional%20brain%20imaging.html. Accessed 6 January 2008
  43. 43.
    Magen H, Cohen A (2007) Modularity beyond perception: evidence from single task interference paradigms. Cognit Psychol 55:1–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mainero C, Pantano P, Caramia F, Pozzilli C (2006) Brain reorganization during attention and memory tasks in multiple sclerosis: insights from functional MRI studies. J Neurol Sci 245:93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Marr D (1982) Vision. Freeman Publishers, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meyer-Lindenberg A, Mervis CB, Berman KF (2006) Neural mechanisms in Williams syndrome: a unique window to genetic influences on cognition and behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:380–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Micheloyannis S, Pachou E, Stam CJ, Breakspear M, Bitsios P, Vourkas M, Erimaki S, Zervakis M (2006) Small-world networks and disturbed functional connectivity in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 87:60–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Morton JB, Munakata Y (2005) What’s the difference? Contrasting modular and neural network approaches to understanding developmental variability. J Dev Behav Pediatr 26(2):128–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mountcastle VB (1997) The columnar organization of the neocortex. Brain 120:701–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Murphy D, Stich S (2000) Darwin in the madhouse: evolutionary psychology and the classification of mental disorders. In: Carruthers P, Chamberlain A (eds) Evolution and the human mind. Modularity, language and meta-cognition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 62–92Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nakamura H, Le WR, Wakita M, Mikami A, Itoh K (2004) Projections from the cytochrome oxidase modules of visual area V2 to the ventral posterior area in the macaque. Exp Brain Res 155:102–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Newman MEJ (2006) Modularity and community structure in networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:8577–8582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Op de Beeck HP, Haushofer J, Kanwisher NG (2008) Interpreting fMRI data: maps, modules and dimensions. Nat Rev Neurosci 9:123–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Panksepp J, Panksepp J (2000) The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evol Cogn 6:108–131Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Paterson SJ, Brown JH, Gsödl MK, Johnson MH, Karmiloff-Smith A (1999) Cognitive modularity and genetic disorders. Science 286:2355–2358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Pernet C, Schyns PG, Demonet JF (2007) Specific, selective or preferential: comments on category specificity in neuroimaging. Neuroimage 15:991–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Philipson L (2002) Functional modules of the brain. J Theor Biol 215:109–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Popper KR, Eccles JC (1977) The self and its brain. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Prinz JJ (2006) Is the mind really modular? In: Stainton R (ed) Contemporary debates in cognitive science. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 22–36Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ramus F (2006) Genes, brain, and cognition: a roadmap for the cognitive scientist. Cognition 101:247–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ratliff KR, Newcombe NS (2008) Is language necessary for human spatial reorientation? Reconsidering evidence from dual task paradigms. Cognit Psychol 56:142–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Roudi Y, Latham PE (2007) A balanced memory network. PLoS Comput Biol 3:e141. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030141 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Salvador R, Sucklung J, Coleman MR, Pickard JD, Menon D, Bullmore E (2005) Neurophysiological architecture of functional magnetic resonance images of human brain. Cereb Cortex 15:1332–1342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sanai N, Mirzadeh Z, Berger MS (2008) Functional outcome after language mapping for glioma resection. N Engl J Med 358:18–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Seitz RJ, Nickel J, Azari NP (2006) Functional modularity of the medial prefrontal cortex: involvement in human empathy. Neuropsychology 2006(20):743–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Silver H, Feldman P, Bilker W, Gur RC (2003) Working memory deficit as a core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatr 160:1809–1816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stam CJ, Reijneveld JC (2007) Graph theoretical analysis of complex networks in the brain. Nonlinear Biomed Phys 1:3 (Open access article on BioMed Central; doi:10.186/1753-4631-1-3; http://nonlinearbiomedphys.com/content/1/1/3; Accessed 9 May 2008)
  68. 68.
    Sun P, Ueno K, Waggoner RA, Gardner JL, Tanaka K, Cheng K (2007). A temporal frequency-dependent functional architecture in human V1 revealed by high-resolution fMRI. Nat Neurosci doi:10.10.38/nn1983
  69. 69.
    Szentagothai J (1975) The “module-concept” in cerebral cortical architecture. Brain Res 95:475–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Uttal WR (2001) The new phrenology. The limits of localizing cognitive processes in the brain. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wagner GP, Pavlicev M, Cheverud JM (2007) The road to modularity. Nat Rev Genet 8:921–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ward CD (1990) Neuropsychiatry and the modularity of mind. J Neuropsychiatr Clin Neurosci 2: 443–449Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wölwer W, Frommann N, Halfmann S, Piaszek A, Streit M, Gaebel W (2005) Remediation of impairments in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: efficacy and specificity of a new training program. Schizophr Res 80:295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyHeinrich-Heine-University, Rhineland State Clinics DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations