The forthcoming revision of the diagnostic and classificatory system: perspectives based on the European psychiatric tradition

Article

Abstract

Europe has a rich tradition in psychopathology and psychiatric classification. This could be helpful developing new classification systems like ICD-11 and DSM-V. Some examples of this are described and further discussed, such as the categorical vs. the syndromatological approach, the relevance of hierarchical rules for the delineation of nosological entities, the antagonistic tradition of unitarian vs. splitting approaches and the relevance of a differentiated psychopathological description. Finally, the conclusion is that a too radical change of the classificatory system, e.g. in the direction of a purely symptomatical/dimensional systematic, or a totally new classification based on modern new biological findings, might be problematic and premature.

Keywords

psychiatric classification schizophrenia affective disorders depression psychotic spectrum 

Notes

Conflict of interest—financial disclosure statement

Prof. Dr. Moeller has received grants or is a consultant for and on the speakership bureaus of AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Cilag, Lundbeck, Merck, Novartis, Organon, Pfizer, Sanofi-Aventis, Sepracor, Servier and Wyeth.

References

  1. 1.
    Abi-Dargham A (2004) Do we still believe in the dopamine hypothesis? New data bring new evidence. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 7(Suppl 1):S1–S5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akiskal H (2005) The bipolar spectrum: history, description, boundaries, and validity. In: Kasper S, Hirschfeld RMA (eds) Handbook of bipolar disorder. Taylor & Francis, Abingdon, Oxford, London pp 49–68Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Akiskal H (2007) The interface of affective and schizophrenic disorders: a cross between two spectra? In: Marneros A, Akiskal H (eds) The overlap of affective and schizophrenic spectra. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 277–291Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Akiskal HS (1999) Bipolar disorder: outcome. New Engl J Med 341:1861–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Akiskal HS (2002) The bipolar spectrum–the shaping of a new paradigm in psychiatry. Curr Psychiatry Rep 4:1–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Angst J (2002) Historical aspects of the dichotomy between manic-depressive disorders and schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 57:5–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Angst J, Felder W, Lohmeier B (1979) A genetic study on schizoaffective disorders. In: Obiols J, Ballus C, Gonzales Monclus E (eds) Biological psychiatry today. Elsevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 12–18Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Angst J, Perris C (1968) Zur Nosologie endogener Depressionen. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr 219:373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Angst J, Scharfetter C (1979) Subtypes of schizophrenia and affective disorders from a genetic viewpoint. In: Obiols J, Ballus C, Gonzales Monclus E (eds) Biolgical psychiatry today. Elsevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 351–357Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Angst J, Sellaro R, Stassen HH, Gamma A (2005) Diagnostic conversion from depression to bipolar disorders: results of a long-term prospective study of hospital admissions. J Affect Disord 84:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Apud JA, Weinberger DR (2007) Treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia: potential role of catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors. CNS Drugs 21:535–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bleuler E (1972) Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie, 12th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bogerts B, Falkai P, Haupts M et al (1990) Post-mortem volume measurement of limbic system and basal ganglia structures in chronic schizophrenics. Schizophr Res 3:295–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bogerts B, Lieberman J (1993) Neuropathology in the study of psychiatric disease. In: Costa e Silva ACJ, Nadelson CC (eds) International review of psychiatry, 1st edn. American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bonhoeffer K (1912) Die Psychosen im Gefolge von akuten Infektionen, Allgemeinerkrankungen und inneren Erkrankungen. In: Aschaffenburg G (ed) Handbuch der Psychiatrie. Leiptig Vienna, Deutike, pp 1–118Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Boteva K, Lieberman J (2003) Reconsidering the classification of schizophrenia and manic depressive illness–a critical analysis and new conceptual model. World J Biol Psychiatry 4:81–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brockington J (1981) The nosological status of schizoaffective psychosis. In: Perris C, Struwe G, Jansson B (eds) Biological psychiatry. vol 5. Elsevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 482–485Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cahn W, Hulshoff Pol HE, Bongers M, Schnack HG, Mandl RC, Van Haren NE, Durston S, Koning H, Van Der Linden JA, Kahn RS (2002) Brain morphology in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: a study of multiple brain structures. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 43:s66–s72Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cahn W, Hulshoff Pol HE, Lems EB, Van Haren NE, Schnack HG, Van Der Linden JA, Schothorst PF, van Engeland H, Kahn RS (2002) Brain volume changes in first-episode schizophrenia: a 1-year follow-up study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:1002–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cahn W, Van Haren NE, Hulshoff Pol HE, Schnack HG, Caspers E, Laponder DA, Kahn RS (2006) Brain volume changes in the first year of illness and 5-year outcome of schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry 189:381–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cardno AG, Rijsdijk FV, Sham PC, Murray RM, McGuffin P (2002) A twin study of genetic relationships between psychotic symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 159:539–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carlsson A (1978) Antipsychotic drugs, neurotransmitters, and schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 135:165–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carpenter WT (2007) Deconstructing and reconstructing illness syndromes associated with psychosis. World Psychiatry 6:92–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Carpenter WT (2007) Schizophrenia: diagnostic class or domains of pathology. Schizophr Res 33:203Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cichon S, Schumacher J, Muller DJ, Hurter M, Windemuth C, Strauch K, Hemmer S, Schulze TG, Schmidt-Wolf G, Albus M et al (2001) A genome screen for genes predisposing to bipolar affective disorder detects a new susceptibility locus on 8q. Hum Mol Genet 10:2933–2944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Conus P, Abdel-Baki A, Harrigan S, Lambert M, McGorry PD (2004) Schneiderian first rank symptoms predict poor outcome within first episode manic psychosis. J Affect Disord 81:259–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corfas G, Roy K, Buxbaum JD (2004) Neuregulin 1-erbB signaling and the molecular/cellular basis of schizophrenia. Nat Neurosci 7:575–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coryell W, Leon AC, Turvey C, Akiskal HS, Mueller T, Endicott J (2001) The significance of psychotic features in manic episodes: a report from the NIMH collaborative study. J Affect Disord 67:79–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Craddock N, O’Donovan MC, Owen MJ (2006) Genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? Implications for psychiatric nosology. Schizophr Bull 32:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Craddock N, Owen MJ (2005) The beginning of the end for the Kraepelinian dichotomy. Br J Psychiatry 186:364–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crow TJ (1987) Psychosis as a continuum and the virogene concept. Br Med Bull 43:754–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Crow TJ (1990) Nature of the genetic contribution to psychotic illness–a continuum viewpoint. Acta Psychiatr Scand 81:401–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Crow TJ (1990) The continuum of psychosis and its genetic origins. The sixty-fifth Maudsley lecture. Br J Psychiatry 156:788–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crow TJ (1995) A continuum of psychosis, one human gene, and not much else–the case for homogeneity. Schizophr Res 17:135–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Crow TJ (2007) How and why genetic linkage has not solved the problem of psychosis: review and hypothesis. Am J Psychiatry 164:13–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dixon L (1999) Dual diagnosis of substance abuse in schizophrenia: prevalence and impact on outcomes. Schizophr Res 35 Suppl:S93–S100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dixon L, Green-Paden L, Delahanty J, Lucksted A, Postrado L, Hall J (2001) Variables associated with disparities in treatment of patients with schizophrenia and comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Psychiatr Serv 52:1216–1222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunayevich E, Keck PE Jr (2000) Prevalence and description of psychotic features in bipolar mania. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2:286–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Falret JP (1851) Marche de la folie. Gaz Hop 24:18–19Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fish F (1963) The unitary psychosis—a neurophysiological model. Confin Psychiatr 23:155–170Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Flor-Henry P, Lind JC, Koles ZJ (2004) A source-imaging (low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) study of the EEGs from unmedicated males with depression. Psychiatry Res 130:191–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Frodl T, Meisenzahl EM, Zill P, Baghai T, Rujescu D, Leinsinger G, Bottlender R, Schüle C, Zwanzger P, Engel RR et al (2004) Reduced hippocampal volumes associated with the long variant of the serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61:177–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frodl T, Schaub A, Banac S, Charypar M, Jager M, Kummler P, Bottlender R, Zetzsche T, Born C, Leinsinger G et al (2006) Reduced hippocampal volume correlates with executive dysfunctioning in major depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 31:316–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goldschmith RJ (1999) Overview of psychiatric comorbidity. Practical and theoretic considerations. Psychiatr Clin North Am 22:331–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gray JA, Roth BL (2007) Molecular targets for treating cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 33:1100–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Griesinger W (1845) Die Pathologie und Therapie der psychischen Krankheiten. Krabbe, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Grossman LS, Harrow M, Goldberg JF, Fichtner CG (1991) Outcome of schizoaffective disorder at two long-term follow-ups: comparisons with outcome of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry 148:1359–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Guillin O, Abi-Dargham A, Laruelle M (2007) Neurobiology of dopamine in schizophrenia. Int Rev Neurobiol 78:1–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Guislain J (1833) Traite des phrenopathies ou doctrine nouvelle des maladies mentales. Etablissement Enceclopedique, BrüsselGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Häfner H, Maurer K, Trendler G, an der Heiden W, Schmidt M (2005) The early course of schizophrenia and depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 255:167–173Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Harrow M, Grossman LS, Herbener ES, Davies EW (2000) Ten-year outcome: patients with schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia, affective disorders and mood-incongruent psychotic symptoms. Br J Psychiatry 177:421–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hegerl U, Juckel G, Muller-Schubert A, Pietzcker A, Gaebel W (1995) Schizophrenics with small P300: a subgroup with a neurodevelopmental disturbance and a high risk for tardive dyskinesia? Acta Psychiatr Scand 91:120–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hoche P (1912) Die Bedeutung der Symptomkomplexe in der Psychiatrie. Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 12:540–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Höschl C (2007) Psychiatric diagnosis and classification from the European perspective. Die Psychiatrie 4:113–115Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hurlemann R, Matusch A, Kuhn KU, Berning J, Elmenhorst D, Winz O, Kolsch H, Zilles K, Wagner M, Maier W et al (2007) 5-HT(2A) receptor density is decreased in the at-risk mental state. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195(4):579–590Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Iritani S (2007) Neuropathology of schizophrenia: a mini review. Neuropathology 27:604–608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Jaspers K (1965) Allgemeine psychopathologie, 8th edn. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kahlbaum K (1863) Die Gruppierung der psychischen Krankheiten und die Einteilung der Seelenstörungen. AW Kafemann, DanzigGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kasanin J (1994) The acute schizoaffective psychoses. 1933. Am J Psychiatry 151:144–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Keck PE Jr, McElroy SL, Havens JR, Altshuler LL, Nolen WA, Frye MA, Suppes T, Denicoff KD, Kupka R, Leverich GS et al (2003) Psychosis in bipolar disorder: phenomenology and impact on morbidity and course of illness. Compr Psychiatry 44:263–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kehrer F, Kretschmer E (1924) Die Veranlagung zu seelischen Störungen (Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiete der neurologie 40). Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kendell RE (1978) The role of diagnosis in psychiatry. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kendell RE (1988) Long-term followup studies: a commentary. Schizophr Bull 14:663–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kleist K (1953) Die Gliederung der neuropsychischen Erkrankungen. Monatsschr Psychiatr Neurol 125:526–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kraepelin E (1899) Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, 6th edn. Johann Ambrosius Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kraepelin E (1910) Psychiatire, 8th edn. (1st ed. 1883). Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kraepelin E (1919) Dementia praecox. E. S. Liningstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kreczmanski P, Heinsen H, Mantua V, Woltersdorf F, Masson T, Ulfig N, Schmidt-Kastner R, Korr H, Steinbusch HW, Hof PR et al (2007) Volume, neuron density and total neuron number in five subcortical regions in schizophrenia. Brain 130:678–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Läge D, Möller HJ, Riedel M (2008) Exploring the structure of psychopathological symptoms—reconsidering the AMDP factor-analytic syndromes by combining the categorical and dimensional perspective. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res (in press)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lapierre YD (1994) Schizophrenia and manic-depression: separate illnesses or a continuum? Can J Psychiatry 39:S59–S64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Laviolette SR (2007) Dopamine modulation of emotional processing in cortical and subcortical neural circuits: evidence for a final common pathway in schizophrenia? Schizophr Bull 33:971–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Leonhard K (1968) Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen, 4th edn. Akademie Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lieberman J, Chakos M, Wu H, Alvir J, Hoffman E, Robinson D, Bilder R (2001) Longitudinal study of brain morphology in first episode schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry 49:487–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lieberman JA (2006) Neurobiology and the natural history of schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 67(10):e14Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lieberman JA, Tollefson GD, Charles C, Zipursky R, Sharma T, Kahn RS, Keefe RS, Green AI, Gur RE, McEvoy J et al (2005) Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in first-episode psychosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Maier W (2007) Common risk genes for affective and schizophrenic psychoses. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 258(Suppl 2):37–40Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maier W, Zobel A, Rietschel M (2003) Genetics of schizophrenia and affective disorders. Pharmacopsychiatry 36(Suppl 3):S195–S202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maj M (2007) Towards ICD-11 and DSM-V: some current problems of diagnosis in psychiatry. Eur Psychiatry 22:S1Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Marneros A (2000) Behandlung schizoaffektiver Psychosen. In: Möller HJ (ed) Therapie psychiatrischer Erkrankungen. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 484–488Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Marneros A (2003) Schizoaffective disorder: clinical aspects, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep 5(3):202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Marneros A (2003) The schizoaffective phenomenon: the state of the art. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl:29–33Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Marneros A (2007) The paradigma of overlapping affective and schizophrenic spectra: schizoaffective conditions. In: Marneros A, Akiskal H (eds) The overlap of affective and schizophrenic spectra. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Marneros A, Akiskal H (2007) The overlap of affective and schizophrenic spectra. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Marneros A, Angst J (2000) Bipolar disorders. 100 years after manic-depressive insanity. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A (1986) The cologne study on schizoaffective disorders and schizophrenia suspecta. In: Marneros A, Tsuang MT (eds) Schizoaffective psychoses. Springer, Berlin, pp 123–142Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A (1988) Syndrome shift in the long-term course of schizoaffective disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 238:97–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A (1991) Affektive, schizoaffektive und schizophrene Psychosen. Eine vergleichende langzeitstudie. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Marneros A, Deister A, Rohde A, Junemann H, Fimmers R (1988) Long-term course of schizoaffective disorders. Part I: definitions, methods, frequency of episodes and cycles. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 237:264–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Marneros A, Röttig S, Röttig D, Tscharntke A, Brieger P (2007) Bipolar I disorder with mood-incongruent psychostic symptoms: a comparative longitudinal study. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (in press)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Martin RL, Cloninger CR, Guze SB, Clayton PJ (1985) Frequency and differential diagnosis of depressive syndromes in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 46:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McGlashan TH (1988) A selective review of recent North Americoan long-term studies of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 14:11–14Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Meisenzahl EM, Seifert D, Jäger M, Bottlender R, Schmitt G, Zetzsche T, Koutouleris N, Burgermeister B, Teipel S, Born C et al (2007) Hippocampal volume reductions in major depression and schizophrenia: a comparative structural MRI study. SubmittedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Moller HJ (2005) Problems associated with the classification and diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. World J Biol Psychiatry 6:45–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Möller HJ (2008) Is there a need for a new psychiatric classification at the current state of knowledge? World J Biol PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Möller HJ (2008) Standardised rating scales in psychiatry: methodological basis, their possibilities and limitations and descriptions of important rating scales. World J Biol Psychiatry (in press)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Möller HJ (2008) The assessment of cognitive impairment would be a relevant addition to the criteria for diagnosing schizophrenia. World Psychiatry 7:35–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Möller HJ (2008) The complexity of development trends and decision making in pharmacopsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Möller HJ, Bottlender R, Groß A, Hoff P, Wittmann J, Wegner U, Strauss A (2002) The Kraepelinian dichotomy: preliminary results of a 15-year follow-up study on functional psychoses: focus on negative symptoms. Schizophr Res 56:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Möller HJ, Bottlender R, Jäger M, Strauss A (2008) The Munich 15 years follow up study on first hospitalized patients with schizophrenia and affective psychosis: main outcome results (In press)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Möller HJ, Schmid Bode W, Cording-Tömmel C, Wittchen HU, Zaudig M, von Zerssen D (1988) Psychopathological and social outcome in schizophrenia versus affective/schizoaffective psychoses and prediction of poor outcome in schizophrenia. Results from a 5–8 year follow-up. Acta Psychiatr Scand 77:379–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mulert C, Jager L, Pogarell O, Bussfeld P, Schmitt R, Juckel G, Hegerl U (2002) Simultaneous ERP and event-related fMRI: focus on the time course of brain activity in target detection. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 24 Suppl D:17–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Müller N, Schwarz MJ (2007) The immunological basis of glutamatergic disturbance in schizophrenia: towards an integrated view. J Neural Transm Suppl:269–280Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Murray RM, McDonald C, Bramon E (2002) Neurodevelopmental impairment, dopamine sensitisation, and social adversity in schizophrenia. World Psychiatry 1:137–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Murray RM, Sham P, van Os J, Zanelli J, Cannon M, McDonald C (2004) A developmental model for similarities and dissimilarities between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Schizophr Res 71:405–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Neumeister A, Young T, Stastny J (2004) Implications of genetic research on the role of the serotonin in depression: emphasis on the serotonin type 1A receptor and the serotonin transporter. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 174:512–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pincus HA, Tew JD, First MB (2004) Psychiatric comorbidity: is more less? World Psychiatry 3:18–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rapoport JL, Addington AM, Frangou S, Psych MR (2005) The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: update 2005. Mol Psychiatry 10:434–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rennert H (1977) Etiology and classification of mental disorders from viewpoint of “Universal genesis of psychoses”. Psychiatr Neurol Med Psychol (Leipz) 29:9–13Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rujescu D, Bender A, Keck M, Hartmann AM, Ohl F, Raeder H, Giegling I, Genius J, McCarley RW, Moller HJ et al (2006) A pharmacological model for psychosis based on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction: molecular, cellular, functional and behavioral abnormalities. Biol Psychiatry 59:721–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rujescu D, Hartmann AM, Gonnermann C, Moller HJ, Giegling I (2003) M129V variation in the prion protein may influence cognitive performance. Mol Psychiatry 8:937–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Saugstad LF (1994) The maturational theory of brain development and cerebral excitability in the multifactorially inherited manic-depressive psychosis and schizophrenia. Int J Psychophysiol 18:189–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Saugstad LF (1999) A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation. Schizophr Res %19;39: 183–196Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Saugstad LF (2001) Manic depressive psychosis and schizophrenia are neurological disorders at the extremes of CNS maturation and nutritional disorders associated with a deficit in marine fat. Med Hypotheses 57:679–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Saugstad LF (2007) What are psychosis and where is it located. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci (in press)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schmitt GJ, Meisenzahl EM, Dresel S, Tatsch K, Rossmuller B, Frodl T, Preuss UW, Hahn K, Moller HJ (2002) Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding of risperidone in schizophrenic patients as assessed by 123I-iodobenzamide SPECT: a comparative study with olanzapine. J Psychopharmacol 16:200–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schumacher J, Cichon S, Rietschel M, Nothen MM, Propping P (2002) Genetics of bipolar affective disorders. Current status of research for identification of susceptibility genes. Nervenarzt 73:581–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Strakowski SM, Williams JR, Sax KW, Fleck DE, DelBello MP, Bourne ML (2000) Is impaired outcome following a first manic episode due to mood-incongruent psychosis? J Affect Disord 61:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Subotnik KL, Nuechterlein KH, Asarnow RF, Fogelson DL, Goldstein MJ, Talovic SA (1997) Depressive symptoms in the early course of schizophrenia: relationship to familial psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 154:1551–1556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tamminga CA (2006) The neurobiology of cognition in schizophrenia. J Clin Psychiatry 67(9):e11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tsuang MT, Dempsey GM (1979) Long-term outcome of major psychoses. II. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and a surgical control group. Arch Gen Psychiatry 36:1302–1304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    van Rd V (1993) Reactualization of the concept of unitary psychosis introduced by Joseph Guislain. Acta Psychiatr Belg 93:203–219Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Weinberger DR, Wagner RL, Wyatt RJ (1983) Neuropathological studies of schizophrenia: a selective review. Schizophr Bull 9:193–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Weis S, Llenos IC, Dulay JR, Elashoff M, Martinez-Murillo F, Miller CL (2007) Quality control for microarray analysis of human brain samples: the impact of postmortem factors, RNA characteristics, and histopathology. J Neurosci Methods 165:198–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Zeller E (1837) Bericht über die Wirksamkeit der heilanstalt Winnenthal von ihrer Eröffnung den 1. März 1834 bis zum 28. Februar 1837. Beil med Corresp Bl Wurtemb Ärztl Ver 7:321–335Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of PsychiatryUniversity of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations