Co-morbidity of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with focus on personality traits and related disorders in a tertiary referral center

  • Christian P. Jacob
  • Jasmin Romanos
  • Astrid Dempfle
  • Monika Heine
  • Christine Windemuth-Kieselbach
  • Anja Kruse
  • Andreas Reif
  • Susanne Walitza
  • Marcel Romanos
  • Alexander Strobel
  • Burkhard Brocke
  • Helmut Schäfer
  • Armin Schmidtke
  • Jobst Böning
  • Klaus-Peter Lesch



The prevalence and consequences of co-morbid axis-I and axis-II disorders as well as personality traits were examined in a large cohort of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AADHD) at a tertiary referral center.


In- and outpatients referred for diagnostic assessment of AADHD were screened. 372 affected probands were examined by means of the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV axis-I/II disorders, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ).


Lifetime co-morbidity with mood disorders was 57.3%, with anxiety disorders 27.2%, and with substance use disorders 45.0%. The histrionic personality disorder (35.2%) was the most frequent personality disorder. AADHD patients exhibited significantly altered scores on most of the NEO-PI-R and TPQ personality dimensions. The extent of substance abuse and dependence, as well as the presence of antisocial personality disorder alone or the cumulative number of other specific personality disorders was associated with lower psychosocial status (p < .0001).


In a cohort of patients with AADHD referred to a single tertiary center co-morbidity with axis-I/II disorders was remarkably prevalent. In AADHD co-morbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders as well as substance abuse/dependence is likely to be predictive of poor outcome.


adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder co-morbidity NEO-PI-R TPQ 



Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, KFO 125/1-1, SCHA 542/10-2) and Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (NGFN 01GR0460)


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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian P. Jacob
    • 1
  • Jasmin Romanos
    • 1
  • Astrid Dempfle
    • 3
  • Monika Heine
    • 1
  • Christine Windemuth-Kieselbach
    • 3
  • Anja Kruse
    • 1
  • Andreas Reif
    • 1
  • Susanne Walitza
    • 2
  • Marcel Romanos
    • 2
  • Alexander Strobel
    • 4
  • Burkhard Brocke
    • 4
  • Helmut Schäfer
    • 3
  • Armin Schmidtke
    • 1
  • Jobst Böning
    • 1
  • Klaus-Peter Lesch
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and PsychotherapyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Medical Biometry and EpidemiologyPhilipps-University of MarburgMarburgGermany
  4. 4.Department of Personality and Individual Differences, Institute of Psychology IIDresden University of TechnologyDresdenGermany

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