The early course of schizophrenia and depression*

  • Heinz Häfner
  • Kurt Maurer
  • Günter Trendler
  • Wolfram an der Heiden
  • Martin Schmidt



Risk factors, emergence and accumulation of symptoms in the untreated early course were studied as a basis for understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and depression.

Materials and methods

130 representative first admissions for schizophrenia were compared retrospectively with 130 individually matched first admissions for depressive episodes and with 130 healthy controls.


Onsets of schizophrenia and severe depression were marked by depressive symptoms, followed by negative symptoms and functional impairment. This prodromal core syndrome became more prevalent as the disorders progressed, and it reappeared in psychotic relapses. Psychotic symptoms emerged late, indicating a different and more severe “disease pattern”.


The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the general population and at the prodromal stage of numerous mental disorders precipitated by various psychological and biological factors suggests that depression might be an expression of an inborn mild reaction pattern of the human brain. With progressing brain dysfunction more severe patterns like psychosis are expressed.

Key words

schizophrenia and depression early course prodromal stage Jacksonism hierarchical reaction patterns of the brain 


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Heinz Häfner
    • 1
  • Kurt Maurer
  • Günter Trendler
  • Wolfram an der Heiden
  • Martin Schmidt
  1. 1.Schizophrenia Research UnitCentral Institute of Mental HealthMannheimGermany

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