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Safety and efficacy of superior turbinate biopsies as a source of olfactory epithelium appropriate for morphological analysis

  • Ellen Cristine Duarte Garcia
  • Ana Carolina Rossaneis
  • Alexandre Salvatore Pipino
  • Gustavo Vasconcelos Gomes
  • Fábio de Rezende Pinna
  • Richard Louis Voegels
  • Richard L. Doty
  • Waldiceu Aparecido VerriJr.
  • Marco Aurélio FornazieriEmail author
Rhinology
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

There is no standardized approach for preserving olfactory function in the side of the nose where biopsy of the olfactory epithelium (OE) is performed. Moreover, a gold standard technique for obtaining human OE in vivo is still lacking. We determined the efficacy of obtaining good-quality OE specimens suitable for pathological analysis from the lower half of the superior turbinate and verified the safety of this procedure in maintaining bilateral and unilateral olfactory function.

Methods

In 21 individuals without olfactory complaints and who had undergone septoplasty and inferior turbinectomy OE biopsy was made during septoplasty. Olfactory function, both unilateral and bilateral, was assessed using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) before and 1 month after the procedure. Specimens were marked with the olfactory marker protein for confirmation of OE presence.

Results

Ninety percent of the samples contained OE, although clear histological characterization was possible from only 62%. There was no deterioration of UPSIT scores either bilaterally or unilaterally on the side of the biopsy. Patients also maintained the ability to identify individual odorants.

Conclusion

Biopsies of the lower half of the superior turbinate do not affect olfactory function and show strong efficacy in yielding OE tissue and moderate efficacy for yielding tissue appropriate for morphological analysis. Future studies are needed to assess the safety of this procedure in other OE regions.

Keywords

Smell Immunohistochemistry Smell tests Morphology Nasal mucosa Olfactory function 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação Araucária for PhD, Post-Doc and PQ for financial support. We especially thank professor Eric H. Holbrook for helping in the final review of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

Richard L. Doty receives funding from the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. He is a consultant to Acorda Therapeutics, Eisai Co, Ltd, Merck, and Johnson & Johnson. He receives royalties from Cambridge University Press, Johns Hopkins University Press, and John Wiley & Sons, Inc. He is President of, and a major shareholder in, Sensonics International, a manufacturer and distributor of smell- and taste tests. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ellen Cristine Duarte Garcia
    • 1
  • Ana Carolina Rossaneis
    • 2
  • Alexandre Salvatore Pipino
    • 1
  • Gustavo Vasconcelos Gomes
    • 1
  • Fábio de Rezende Pinna
    • 3
  • Richard Louis Voegels
    • 3
  • Richard L. Doty
    • 4
  • Waldiceu Aparecido VerriJr.
    • 2
  • Marco Aurélio Fornazieri
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Clinical SurgeryLondrina State University (UEL)LondrinaBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Pain, Inflammation, Neuropathy and Cancer, Department of Pathological SciencesUELLondrinaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  4. 4.Smell and Taste Center, Perelman School of MedicineUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicinePontifical Catholic University of ParanáLondrinaBrazil

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