Effects of diode laser setting for laryngeal surgery in a rabbit model

  • Helena Hotz Arroyo-RamosEmail author
  • Larissa Neri
  • Marilia Wellichan Mancini
  • Amaro Nunes Duarte Neto
  • Thais Mauad
  • Rui Imamura



To study the damaging effect of different diode laser settings on vocal folds 7 days after injury in a rabbit model.


Twenty-one male New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into three groups with seven animals per group. A 980-nm diode laser was used to create a single spot injury in each vocal fold. Different modulation frequencies (10 Hz versus 1000 Hz) in pulsed mode, different powers (3 W versus 5 W), and distinct wave modes of radiation (pulsed versus continuous) were compared.


The extent of the inflammatory infiltrate and ablation crater were greater when using 5-W optical power compared with 3 W. The extent and depth of the inflammatory infiltrate, and the width and depth of the ablation crater were greater with continuous wave mode compared with pulsed mode. The density of collagen fibers only increased when using the laser in continuous wave mode.


The use of the 980-nm diode laser with an output power of 5 W produced an increased extent of thermal injury compared to an output power of 3 W and, more importantly, using continuous rather than pulsed wave mode significantly increased the extent and depth of thermal injury in rabbit vocal folds.


Larynx Vocal fold Laser injury Wound healing Diode laser Endolaryngeal surgery 



The authors would like to thank the Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) for its financial support and Luciana Almeida Lopes for helping to choose the laser settings. We also thank the Research and Education Center for Phototherapy in Health Sciences (NUPEN) for the laser equipment and technical support.


This study was funded by FAPESP (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de São Paulo—Grant number 2015/25095-0).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Ethics Committee for the Analysis of Research Projects of the University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine (research protocol no. 177/13). All applicable international, national, and institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyThe University of Sao Paulo School of MedicineSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Research and Education Center for Phototherapy in Health Sciences (NUPEN)São CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Department of PathologyThe University of Sao Paulo School of MedicineSão PauloBrazil

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