Extension patterns of vestibular schwannomas towards the middle ear: three new cases and review of the literature
Middle ear extension of vestibular schwannomas is not a common occurrence, and only a few cases have been described so far in past publications. We report three new cases of vestibular schwannomas extending to the middle ear and reviewed the literature to specify the patterns of such an extension.
Materials and methods
We analysed databases of previously published articles to search for additional cases of middle ear extension of vestibular schwannomas and compared them to the cases we have documented. Extension patterns of the tumours were analysed, especially focusing on the extension through the round and oval windows.
Results and conclusion
Middle ear vestibular schwannomas are uncommon tumours and only 13 cases have been published so far. The vestibular schwannoma (internal auditory canal or intralabyrinthine) has to invade the labyrinth first (complete invasion in 88% of the cases, n = 14), before reaching the middle ear. In the majority of cases (69%, n = 11/16), internal auditory canal vestibular schwannomas or intralabyrinthine schwannomas extended in the middle ear though the round window.
KeywordsVestibular schwannomas Middle ear Round window CT MRI
The authors would like to thank Mr. Siju Koshy for his precious help during the manuscript revision.
No funding was received for this study.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
This is a review article of cases from the literature.
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