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European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 274, Issue 3, pp 1735–1740 | Cite as

Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds recorded with a smartphone according to obstruction site in OSAS patients

  • Soo Kweon Koo
  • Soon Bok Kwon
  • Yang Jae Kim
  • JI Seung Moon
  • Young Jun Kim
  • Sung Hoon Jung
Miscellaneous

Abstract

Snoring is a sign of increased upper airway resistance and is the most common symptom suggestive of obstructive sleep apnea. Acoustic analysis of snoring sounds is a non-invasive diagnostic technique and may provide a screening test that can determine the location of obstruction sites. We recorded snoring sounds according to obstruction level, measured by DISE, using a smartphone and focused on the analysis of formant frequencies. The study group comprised 32 male patients (mean age 42.9 years). The spectrogram pattern, intensity (dB), fundamental frequencies (F 0), and formant frequencies (F 1, F 2, and F 3) of the snoring sounds were analyzed for each subject. On spectrographic analysis, retropalatal level obstruction tended to produce sharp and regular peaks, while retrolingual level obstruction tended to show peaks with a gradual onset and decay. On formant frequency analysis, F 1 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 488.1 ± 125.8 vs. 634.7 ± 196.6 Hz) and F 2 (retropalatal level vs. retrolingual level: 1267.3 ± 306.6 vs. 1723.7 ± 550.0 Hz) of retrolingual level obstructions showed significantly higher values than retropalatal level obstruction (p < 0.05). This suggests that the upper airway is more severely obstructed with retrolingual level obstruction and that there is a greater change in tongue position. Acoustic analysis of snoring is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that can be easily applied at a relatively low cost. The analysis of formant frequencies will be a useful screening test for the prediction of occlusion sites. Moreover, smartphone can be effective for recording snoring sounds.

Keywords

Obstructive sleep apnea Snoring Acoustics Endoscopy 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

This research protocol was reviewed and approved after deliberation by the Busan Saint Mary’s Hospital Institutional Review Board (IRB).

Conflict of interest

The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soo Kweon Koo
    • 1
  • Soon Bok Kwon
    • 2
  • Yang Jae Kim
    • 1
  • JI Seung Moon
    • 1
  • Young Jun Kim
    • 1
  • Sung Hoon Jung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryBusan Saint Mary’s HospitalBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Language and InformationCollege of Humanities, Pusan National UniversityGeumjeong-GuSouth Korea

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