Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis: our experience with 18 cases
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Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is a rapidly progressive life threatening infection that is seen most commonly among immunocompromised patients. We present a case series of 18 patients clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with AIFRS with a mean follow-up of 9.11 ± 2.51 months (range 6–17). Demographic data, apparent symptoms and signs, underlying disorders, and outcomes are discussed. The mean age was 39.56 ± 20.66 years (range 2–75). The most common underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (50 %) and leukemia (44.44 %). Mucosal biopsy confirmed fungal invasion of the nasal mucosa in all cases. The main fungi were Rhizopus oryzae (55.56 %), Absidia mucor (16.67 %), and Aspergillus fumigatus (27.78 %). Headache and facial pain (77.8 %), facial paresthesia (55.6 %), and ophthalmoplegia (33.3 %) were the most common symptoms and signs. Computed tomography and endoscopic findings showed various stages of sinonasal (100 %), pterygopalatine fossa (55.56 %), orbital (44.45 %), and cerebral (5.56 %) involvement. All patients underwent serial surgical debridement (3.78 ± 1.80 times; range 2–8) simultaneously with systemic antifungal therapy and proper management of the underlying disease. The most extreme case with brain involvement survived and recovered with no evidence of recurrent disease following treatment. All patients were considered cured after two endoscopic negative histopathologic evaluations. Three patients (16.67 %) died, one from uncontrolled leukemia and two due to renal failure. AIFRS is a potentially fatal condition, however, early diagnosis and management of the underlying disease accompanied with systemic antifungal and aggressive serial surgical intervention appears to be effective in reducing mortality in most patients.
KeywordsInvasive fungal rhinosinusitis Immunocompromised Diabetes mellitus Leukemia
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