European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 274, Issue 2, pp 617–626 | Cite as

The possible mechanisms of the human microbiome in allergic diseases

  • Kagan Ipci
  • Niyazi Altıntoprak
  • Nuray Bayar MulukEmail author
  • Mehmet Senturk
  • Cemal Cingi
Review Article


In the present paper, we discuss the importance of the microbiome in allergic disease. In this review paper, the data from the Medline (PubMed) and search engine of Kirikkale University were systematically searched for all relevant articles in June 15th, 2015 for the past 30 years. The keywords of “microbiome”, “dysbiosis”, “allergy”, “allergic rhinitis”, “allergic disease”, “mechanisms” and “treatment” were used alone or together. In this paper, microbiomes were presented in terms of “Definition”, “Influence of \the human microbiome on health”, “The microbiome and allergic diseases”, and “Modulation of the gut microbiota in terms of treatment and prevention”. Microbiological dysbiosis is also reviewed. The microbiome is the genetic material of all microbes (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) that live on or in the human body. Microbes outnumber human cells in a 10:1 ratio. Most microbes live in the gut, particularly the large intestine. Changes in the immune function of the respiratory tract are (at least in theory) linked to the immunomodulatory activity of the gut microbiota via the concept of a “common mucosal response”. The gut microbiota shapes systemic immunity, thus affecting the lung mucosa. Alternatively, changes in the gut microbiota may reflect alterations in the oropharyngeal microbiota, which may in turn directly affect the lung microbiota and host immune responses via microaspiration. Dysbiosis is defined as qualitative and quantitative changes in the intestinal flora; and modern diet and lifestyle, antibiotics, psychological and physical stress result in alterations in bacterial metabolism, as well as the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic microorganisms. All immune system components are directly or indirectly regulated by the microbiota. The nature of microbial exposure early in life appears to be important for the development of robust immune regulation; disruption of either the microbiota or the host response can trigger chronic inflammation. Dysbiosis is also an important clinical entity. Antibiotics, psychological and physical stress, and dietary factors contribute to intestinal dysbiosis.


Microbiome Immune system Immunomodulatory activity B cell maturation Gut microbiota Dysbiosis 



“With exception of data collection, preparation of this paper including design and planning was supported by Continuous Education and Scientific Research Association”. There is no financial support. There is only scientific support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kagan Ipci
    • 1
  • Niyazi Altıntoprak
    • 2
  • Nuray Bayar Muluk
    • 3
    • 6
    Email author
  • Mehmet Senturk
    • 4
  • Cemal Cingi
    • 5
  1. 1.ENT ClinicsAnkara Koru HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.ENT ClinicsTuzla State HospitalIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.ENT Department, Medical FacultyKırıkkale UniversityKırıkkaleTurkey
  4. 4.ENT ClinicsKonya Training and Research HospitalKonyaTurkey
  5. 5.ENT Department, Medical FacultyEskisehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehirTurkey
  6. 6.Çankaya/AnkaraTurkey

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