Voice deepening under testosterone treatment in female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals
- 333 Downloads
Female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals rarely access medical services for voice problems arising out of hormonal treatment leading to “voice reassignment”. The aim of this study was a close monitoring of voice deepening in the first year following the commencement of testosterone treatment. Voice recordings from nine female-to-male (FTM) were analyzed with Praat software and values for speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) were calculated. Audio recordings were made prior to and within the first year (mean 55.2 weeks) of testosterone treatment at a mean of 35.4 different time points. The values for speaking fundamental frequency were compared with values taken from 21 biological men with healthy voices. The 10th to 90th percentile range of FTM overlapped with those of biological men after about 36 weeks. The mean SFF change was a decrease of 8.78 seminotes at week 52 and at this point in time no significant difference between SSF in FTM and biological men was found. Testosterone treatment led to significant voice deepening within the first year with the degree of change decreasing over time. Mean SFF change in the first year was almost a sixth and thus less than one octave but nonetheless reached an SFF comparable with biological men.
KeywordsVoice Transsexualism Female-to-male Testosterone Sex reassignment procedure
The authors would like to thank the participants for their efforts and the speech therapists from our department for their technical assistance. An excerpt of the results was presented at the 10th Pan European Voice Conference on August 21–24, 2013 in Prague, Czech Republic, and the 27th congress of the Union of the European Phoniatricians on October 2–5, 2014 in Moscow, Russian Federation.
Compliance with ethical standards
The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of the local Medical Association (Ärztekammer Westfalen-Lippe, Germany) and the Medical Faculty Münster, Germany.
Conflict of interest
None to declare.
- 1.American Psychiatric Association (2013) American psychiatric association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition. ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
- 2.World Health Organisation (2014) International Classification of Diseases (ICD) Version. http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2015/en. Accessed 17 March 2015/
- 5.Van Borsel J, De Cuypere G, Rubens R, Destaerke B (2000) Voice problems in female-to-male transsexuals. Int J Lang Commun Disord 3:427–442Google Scholar
- 7.Tanner J (1962) Groth and adolescense. Blackwell Scientific, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 10.Association International Phonetic (ed) (1999) Handbook of the international phonetic association. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 11.Dejonckere PH, Bradley P, Clemente P et al (2001) A basic protocol for functional assessment of voice pathology, especially for investigating the efficacy of (phonosurgical) treatments and evaluating new assessment techniques. Guideline elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society (ELS). Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2:77–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 13.Boersma P, Weenink D (2013) Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. http://www.praat.org. Accessed 17 March 2015
- 14.IBM (2011) IBM SPSS statistics 20 core system. User’s Guide, ArmonkGoogle Scholar
- 20.Cosyns M, Van Borsel J, Wierckx K et al (2013) Voice in female-to-male transsexual persons after long-term androgen therapy. Laryngoscope 6:1409–1414Google Scholar