European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 273, Issue 2, pp 349–354 | Cite as

Gender and modulation frequency effects on auditory steady state response (ASSR) thresholds

  • Mohd Normani Zakaria
  • Bahram Jalaei
  • Nor Alaudin Abdul Wahab


For estimating behavioral hearing thresholds, auditory steady state response (ASSR) can be reliably evoked by stimuli at low and high modulation frequencies (MFs). In this regard, little is known regarding ASSR thresholds evoked by stimuli at different MFs in female and male participants. In fact, recent data suggest that 40-Hz ASSR is influenced by estrogen level in females. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of gender and MF on ASSR thresholds in young adults. Twenty-eight normally hearing participants (14 males and 14 females) were enrolled in this study. For each subject, ASSR thresholds were recorded with narrow-band chirps at 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz carrier frequencies (CFs) and at 40 and 90 Hz MFs. Two-way mixed ANOVA (with gender and MF as the factors) revealed no significant interaction effect between factors at all CFs (p > 0.05). The gender effect was only significant at 500 Hz CF (p < 0.05). At 500 and 1,000 Hz CFs, mean ASSR thresholds were significantly lower at 40 Hz MF than at 90 Hz MF (p < 0.05). Interestingly, at 2,000 and 4,000 Hz CFs, mean ASSR thresholds were significantly lower at 90 Hz MF than at 40 Hz MF (p < 0.05). The lower ASSR thresholds in females might be due to hormonal influence. When recording ASSR thresholds at low MF, we suggest the use of gender-specific normative data so that more valid comparisons can be made, particularly at 500 Hz CF.


Auditory steady state response Modulation frequency Gender Chirps Estrogen 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Normani Zakaria
    • 1
  • Bahram Jalaei
    • 1
  • Nor Alaudin Abdul Wahab
    • 2
  1. 1.Audiology Program, School of Health SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaKubang KerianMalaysia
  2. 2.Audiology Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesNational University of MalaysiaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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