European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 271, Issue 11, pp 2885–2890 | Cite as

Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver

  • Young Ho KimEmail author
  • Young Chul Kim
  • Jun Hee Lee
  • Yong-Hwi An
  • Kyung Tae Park
  • Kyung Min Kang
  • Yeon June Kang


The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.


Impact noise Titanium Golf 



This work was supported by the grant number 0420100560 from Seoul National University Hospital Research Fund and a clinical research grant from Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Ho Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Young Chul Kim
    • 2
  • Jun Hee Lee
    • 3
  • Yong-Hwi An
    • 4
  • Kyung Tae Park
    • 1
  • Kyung Min Kang
    • 5
  • Yeon June Kang
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Boramae Medical Center, College of MedicineSeoul Metropolitan Government, Seoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Physiology, College of MedicineChungbuk National UniversityCheongjuSouth Korea
  3. 3.College of MedicineSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eulji Medical Center, School of MedicineEulji UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  5. 5.School of Mechanical and Aerospace EngineeringSeoul National UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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