European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 268, Issue 5, pp 727–731 | Cite as

Laryngeal cancer and passive smoking: the neglected factor?

  • Antonios Mallis
  • Eleni Jelastopulu
  • Nicholas S. Mastronikolis
  • Stefanos S. Naxakis
  • Christos Kourousis
  • Theodoros A. Papadas
Head and Neck

Abstract

In the present paper we investigate the relationship of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to laryngeal cancer. 209 patients who were diagnosed with laryngeal cancer from 2000 to 2009 at the University Hospital of Patras, Western Greece, were reviewed with regard to patient age, disease stage at presentation, tumor differentiation, tobacco product use, alcohol consumption, occupation, and ETS exposure in the working environment. Pearson Chi-square method was used to determine the effect of ETS exposure on cancer stage, TNM classification and tumor differentiation in the dichotomized population (exposed vs. not exposed) and in groups of low, medium and high ETS exposure. ETS exposure in the working environment was found to significantly affect overall disease stage and T stage (p < 0.01) both in the dichotomic analysis and the group analysis. Minor significance was also noted for N stage (p = 0.047) in the exposure group analysis. Our data suggest that occupational ETS exposure presents a contributing risk factor for laryngeal cancer that requires further research to determine its significance.

Keywords

Laryngeal cancer Risk factors Passive smoking 

References

  1. 1.
    Lin HW, Bhattacharyya N (2008) Staging and survival analysis for nonsquamous cell carcinomas of the larynx. Laryngoscope 118(6):1003–1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P (2005) Global cancer statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55(2):74–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferlay J, Autier P, Boniol M, Heanue M, Colombet M, Boyle P (2007) Estimates of the cancer incidence and mortality in Europe in 2006. Ann Oncol 18(3):581–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Marioni G, Marchese-Ragona R, Cartei G, Marchese F, Staffieri A (2006) Current opinion in diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rev 32(7):504–515PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Menvielle G, Luce D, Goldberg P, Bugel I, Leclerc A (2004) Smoking alcohol drinking and cancer risk for various sites of the larynx and hypopharynx. A case–control study in France. Eur J Cancer Prev 13(3):165–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    La Vecchia C, Zhang ZF, Altieri A (2008) Alcohol and laryngeal cancer: an update. Eur J Cancer Prev 17(2):116–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boyle P, Levin B (eds) (2008) World cancer report 2008. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), LyonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramroth H, Dietz A, Becher H (2008) Environmental tobacco smoke and laryngeal cancer: results from a population-based case–control study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 265(11):1367–1371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eisner MD (2010) Secondhand smoke at work. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 10(2):121–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    American Joint Committee on Cancer (1997) Cancer staging manual, 5th edn. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, pp 24–30Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Talamini R, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Dal Maso L, Levi F, Bidoli E et al (2002) Combined effect of tobacco and alcohol on laryngeal cancer risk: a case–control study. Cancer Causes Control 13(10):957–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang ZF, Morgenstern H, Spitz MR, Tashkin DP, Yu GP, Hsu TC, Schantz SP (2000) Environmental tobacco smoking, mutagen sensitivity, and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9(10):1043–1049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lee YC, Boffetta P, Sturgis EM, Wei Q, Zhang ZF, Muscat J et al (2008) Involuntary smoking and head and neck cancer risk: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17(8):1974–1981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tan EH, Adelstein DJ, Droughton ML, Van Kirk MA, Lavertu P (1997) Squamous cell head and neck cancer in nonsmokers. Am J Clin Oncol 20:146–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Riboli E, Preston-Martin S, Saracci R, Haley NJ, Trichopoulos D, Becher H, Burch JD, Fontham ET, Gao YT, Jindal SK et al (1990) Exposure of nonsmoking women to environmental tobacco smoke: a 10-country collaborative study. Cancer Causes Control 1(3):243–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Callinan JE, Clarke A, Doherty K, Kelleher C (2010) Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4, CD005992PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Antonios Mallis
    • 1
  • Eleni Jelastopulu
    • 2
  • Nicholas S. Mastronikolis
    • 1
  • Stefanos S. Naxakis
    • 1
  • Christos Kourousis
    • 3
  • Theodoros A. Papadas
    • 1
  1. 1.ENT DepartmentUniversity Hospital of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Public Health Medical SchoolUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  3. 3.Sismanoglion General HospitalAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations