European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology

, Volume 266, Issue 9, pp 1333–1352 | Cite as

Current trends in initial management of laryngeal cancer: the declining use of open surgery

  • Carl E. Silver
  • Jonathan J. Beitler
  • Ashok R. Shaha
  • Alessandra Rinaldo
  • Alfio Ferlito
Review Article


The role of open surgery for management of laryngeal cancer has been greatly diminished during the past decade. The development of transoral endoscopic laser microsurgery (TLS), improvements in delivery of radiation therapy (RT) and the advent of multimodality protocols, particularly concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) have supplanted the previously standard techniques of open partial laryngectomy for early cancer and total laryngectomy followed by adjuvant RT for advanced cancer. A review of the recent literature revealed virtually no new reports of conventional conservation surgery as initial treatment for early stage glottic and supraglottic cancer. TLS and RT, with or without laser surgery or CCRT, have become the standard initial treatments for T1, T2 and selected T3 laryngeal cancer. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) may have an emerging role in the treatment of early laryngeal cancer. Anterior commissure involvement presents particular difficulties in application of TLS, although no definitive conclusions have been reached with regard to optimal treatment of these lesions. Results of TLS are equivalent to those obtained by conventional conservation surgery, with considerably less morbidity, less hospital time and better postoperative function. Oncologic results of TLS and RT are equivalent for glottic cancer, but with better voice results for RT in patients who require more extensive cordectomy. The preferred treatment for early supraglottic cancer, particularly for bulkier or T3 lesions is TLS, with or without postoperative RT. The Veterans Administration Study published in 1991 established the fact that the response to neoadjuvant CT predicts the response of a tumor to RT. Patients with advanced tumors that responded either partially or completely to CT were treated with RT, and total laryngectomy was reserved for non-responders. This resulted in the ability to preserve the larynx in a significant number of patients with locally advanced laryngeal cancer, while achieving local control and overall survival results equivalent to those achieved with initial total laryngectomy. Following this report, similar “organ preservation” protocols were employed in many centers. By 2003, results of the RTOG 93-11 trial, utilizing CCRT as initial treatment, were published, demonstrating a higher rate of laryngeal preservation with this protocol. Surgery was reserved for treatment failures. This concept changed the paradigm for management of advanced laryngeal cancer, greatly reducing the number of laryngectomies performed. While supracricoid laryngectomy has been employed for selected patients, total laryngectomy is the usual procedure for salvage of failure after non-surgical treatment.


Larynx Treatment Early and advanced laryngeal cancer Endoscopic laser microsurgery Concomitant chemoradiotherapy 


  1. 1.
    Holsinger FC (2008) Swing of the pendulum: optimizing functional outcomes in larynx cancer. Curr Oncol Rep 10:170–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferlito A, Carbone A, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A, DeSanto LW, D’Angelo L, Barnes L, Devaney KO (1996) “Early” cancer of the larynx: the concept as defined by clinicians, pathologists, and biologists. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 105:245–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Society of Clinical Oncology, Pfister DG, Laurie SA, Weinstein GS, Mendenhall WM, Adelstein DJ, Ang KK, Clayman GL, Fisher SG, Forastiere AA, Harrison LB, Lefebvre JL, Leupold N, List MA, O’Malley BO, Patel S, Posner MR, Schwartz MA, Wolf GT (2006) American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline for the use of larynx-preservation strategies in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol 24:3693–3704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Foote RL, Brown PD, Garces YI, Okuno SH, Miller RC, Strome SE (2007) Informed consent in advanced laryngeal cancer. Head Neck 29:230–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sanderson RJ, Montague ML (2004) Surgical management of head and neck malignancy. Surgeon 2:7–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Silver CE, Robbins KT, Medina JE, Rodrigo JP, Shaha AR, Takes RP, Bradley PJ (2008) Neck dissection for laryngeal cancer. J Am Coll Surg 207:587–593PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Steiner W (1993) Results of curative laser microsurgery of laryngeal carcinomas. Am J Otolaryngol 14:116–121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eckel HE, Thumfart WF (1992) Laser surgery for the treatment of larynx carcinomas: indications, techniques, and preliminary results. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 101:113–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eckel HE, Schneider C, Jungehülsing M, Damm M, Schröder U, Vössing M (1998) Potential role of transoral laser surgery for larynx carcinoma. Lasers Surg Med 23:79–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rudert HH, Werner JA, Höft S (1999) Transoral carbon dioxide laser resection of supraglottic carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 108:819–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iro H, Waldfahrer F, Altendorf-Hofmann A, Weidenbecher M, Sauer R, Steiner W (1998) Transoral laser surgery of supraglottic cancer: follow-up of 141 patients. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 124:1245–1250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ambrosch P (2007) The role of laser microsurgery in the treatment of laryngeal cancer. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 15:82–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Remacle M, Eckel HE, Antonelli A, Brasnu D, Chevalier D, Friedrich G, Olofsson J, Rudert HH, Thumfart W, de Vincentiis M, Wustrow TP (2000) Endoscopic cordectomy. A proposal for a classification by the Working Committee, European Laryngological Society. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 257:227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Remacle M, Van Haverbeke C, Eckel H, Bradley P, Chevalier D, Djukic V, de Vicentiis M, Friedrich G, Olofsson J, Peretti G, Quer M, Werner J (2007) Proposal for revision of the European Laryngological Society classification of endoscopic cordectomies. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264:499–504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hartl DM, de Monès E, Hans S, Janot F, Brasnu D (2007) Treatment of early-stage glottic cancer by transoral laser resection. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 116:832–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sjögren EV, Langeveld TP, Baatenburg de Jong RJ (2008) Clinical outcome of T1 glottic carcinoma since the introduction of endoscopic CO2 laser surgery as treatment option. Head Neck 30:1167–1174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grant DG, Salassa JR, Hinni ML, Pearson BW, Hayden RE, Perry WC (2007) Transoral laser microsurgery for untreated glottic carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 137:482–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thurnher D, Erovic BM, Frommlet F, Brannath W, Ehrenberger K, Jansen B, Selzer E, Grasl MC (2008) Challenging a dogma—surgery yields superior long-term results for T1a squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx compared to radiotherapy. Eur J Surg Oncol 34:692–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dey P, Arnold D, Wight R, MacKenzie K, Kelly C, Wilson J (2002) Radiotherapy versus open surgery versus endolaryngeal surgery (with or without laser) for early laryngeal squamous cell cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD002027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baron I, Remacle M (2008) Current options in the management of early primary laryngeal cancers. J ENT Mastercl 1:116–120Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bradley PJ, Rinaldo A, Suárez C, Shaha AR, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA, Patel SG, Ferlito A (2006) Primary treatment of the anterior vocal commissure squamous carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 263:879–888PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Morris CG, Hinerman RW (2001) T1-T2N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with radiation therapy. J Clin Oncol 19:4029–4036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kirchner JA, Fischer JJ (1975) Anterior commissure cancer—a clinical and laboratory study of 39 cases. Can J Otolaryngol 4:637–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Meyer-Breiting E, Burkhardt A (1988) Tumours of the larynx: histopathology and clinical inferences. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Beitler JJ, Johnson JT (2003) Transoral laser excision for early glottic cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 56:1063–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wolfensberger M, Dort JC (1990) Endoscopic laser surgery for early glottic carcinoma: a clinical and experimental study. Laryngoscope 100:1100–1105PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chone CT, Yonehara E, Martins JE, Altemani A, Crespo AN (2007) Importance of anterior commissure in recurrence of early glottic cancer after laser endoscopic resection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:882–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krespi YP, Meltzer CJ (1989) Laser surgery for vocal cord carcinoma involving the anterior commissure. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 98:105–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Casiano RR, Cooper JD, Lundy DS, Chandler JR (1991) Laser cordectomy for T1 glottic carcinoma: a 10-year experience and videostroboscopic findings. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 104:831–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pradhan SA, Pai PS, Neeli SI, D’Cruz AK (2003) Transoral laser surgery for early glottic cancers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129:623–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rödel RMW, Steiner W, Müller RM, Kron M, Matthias C (2009) Endoscopic laser surgery of early glottic cancer: involvement of the anterior commissure. Head Neck 31:583–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Steiner W, Ambrosch P, Rödel RM, Kron M (2004) Impact of anterior commissure involvement on local control of early glottic carcinoma treated by laser microresection. Laryngoscope 114:1485–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steiner W, Ambrosch P (2000) Endoscopic laser surgery of the upper aerodigestive tract. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 56–60Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Laccourreye O, Weinstein G, Brasnu D, Trotoux J, Laccourreye H (1991) Vertical partial laryngectomy: a critical analysis of local recurrence. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 100:68–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Herranz J, Gavilán J, Vázquez-Barros JC (2007) Carcinoma of the anterior commissure (in Spanish). Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 58:367–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bradley PJ, Ferlito A, Suárez C, Werner JA, Genden EM, Shaha AR, Leemans CR, Langendijk JA, Rinaldo A (2006) Options for salvage after failed initial treatment of anterior vocal commissure squamous carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 263:889–894PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Vilaseca I, Huerta P, Blanch JL, Fernández-Planas AM, Jiménez C, Bernal-Sprekelsen M (2008) Voice quality after CO2 laser cordectomy—what can we really expect? Head Neck 30:43–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Manola M, Moscillo L, Costa G, Barillari U, Lo Sito S, Mastella A, Ionna F (2008) Conservative laser microsurgery for T1 glottic carcinoma. Auris Nasus Larynx 35:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xu W, Han D, Hou L, Zhang L, Yu Z, Huang Z (2007) Voice function following CO2 laser microsurgery for precancerous and early-stage glottic carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol 127:637–641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Motta S, Cesari U, Mesolella M, Motta G (2008) Functional vocal results after CO2 laser endoscopic surgery for glottic tumours. J Laryngol Otol 122:948–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piazza C, Bolzoni Villaret A, Redaelli De Zinis LO, Cattaneo A, Cocco D, Peretti G (2007) Phonosurgery after endoscopic cordectomies. II. Delayed medialization techniques for major glottic incompetence after total and extended resections. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264:1185–1190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Núñez Batalla F, Caminero Cueva MJ, Señaris González B, Llorente Pendás JL, Gorriz Gil C, López Llames A, Alonso Pantiga R, Suárez Nieto C (2008) Voice quality after endoscopic laser surgery and radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: objective measurements emphasizing the Voice Handicap Index. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 265:543–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Biel MA (2007) Photodynamic therapy treatment of early oral and laryngeal cancers. Photochem Photobiol 83:1063–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rodrigo JP, Suárez C, Silver CE, Rinaldo A, Ambrosch P, Fagan JJ, Genden EM, Ferlito A (2008) Transoral laser surgery for supraglottic cancer. Head Neck 30:658–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ambrosch P, Kron M, Steiner W (1998) Carbon dioxide laser microsurgery for early supraglottic carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 107:680–688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zeitels SM, Koufman JA, Davis RK, Vaughan CW (1994) Endoscopic treatment of supraglottic and hypopharynx cancer. Laryngoscope 104:71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Davis RK, Kriskovich MD, Galloway EB 3rd, Buntin CS, Jepsen MC (2004) Endoscopic supraglottic laryngectomy with postoperative irradiation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 113:132–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ambrosch P, Rödel R, Kron M, Steiner W (2001) Die Transorale lasermikrochirurgie des Larynxkarzinoms. Eine retrospektive Analyse von 657 Patientenverläufen. Der Onkologe 5:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Grant DG, Salassa JR, Hinni ML, Pearson BW, Hayden RE, Perry WC (2007) Transoral laser microsurgery for carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 136:900–906PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Agrawal A, Moon J, Davis RK, Sakr WA, Giri SP, Valentino J, LeBlanc M, Truelson JM, Yoo GH, Ensley JF, Schuller DE (2007) Transoral carbon dioxide laser supraglottic laryngectomy and irradiation in stage I, II, and III squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx: report of Southwest Oncology Group Phase 2 Trial S9709. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:1044–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Cabanillas R, Rodrigo JP, Llorente JL, Suárez C (2008) Oncologic outcomes of transoral laser surgery of supraglottic carcinoma compared with a transcervical approach. Head Neck 30:750–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peretti G, Piazza C, Cattaneo A, De Benedetto L, Martin E, Nicolai P (2006) Comparison of functional outcomes after endoscopic versus open-neck supraglottic laryngectomies. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 115:827–832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Weinstein GS, O’Malley BW Jr, Snyder W, Hockstein NG (2007) Transoral robotic surgery: supraglottic partial laryngectomy. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 116:19–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Solares CA, Strome M (2007) Transoral robot-assisted CO2 laser supraglottic laryngectomy: experimental and clinical data. Laryngoscope 117:817–820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Desai SC, Sung CK, Jang DW, Genden EM (2008) Transoral robotic surgery using a carbon dioxide flexible laser for tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. Laryngoscope 118:2187–2189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hillel AT, Kapoor A, Simaan N, Taylor RH, Flint P (2008) Applications of robotics for laryngeal surgery. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 41:781–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ansarin M, Planicka M, Rotundo S, Santoro L, Zurlo V, Maffini F, Alterio D, Cattaneo A, Chiesa F (2007) Endoscopic carbon dioxide laser surgery for glottic cancer recurrence after radiotherapy: oncological results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:1193–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grant DG, Salassa JR, Hinni ML, Pearson BW, Hayden RE, Perry WC (2008) Transoral laser microsurgery for recurrent laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 138:606–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, Million RR (1988) T1–T2 vocal cord carcinoma. A basis for comparing the results of radiotherapy and surgery. Head Neck Surg 10:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Tamura Y, Tanaka S, Asato R, Hirano S, Yamashita M, Tamaki H, Ito J (2007) Therapeutic outcomes of laryngeal cancer at Kyoto University Hospital for 10 years. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 557:62–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Overgaard J, Hansen HS, Specht L, Overgaard M, Grau C, Andersen E, Bentzen J, Bastholt L, Hansen O, Johansen J, Andersen L, Evensen JF (2003) Five compared with six fractions per week of conventional radiotherapy of squamous-cell carcinoma of head and neck: DAHANCA 6 and 7 randomised controlled trial. Lancet 362:933–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schwaibold F, Scariato A, Nunno M, Wallner PE, Lustig RA, Rouby E, Gorshein D, Wenger J (1988) The effect of fraction size on control of early glottic cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 14:451–454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Garden AS, Forster K, Wong PF, Morrison WH, Schechter NR, Ang KK (2003) Results of radiotherapy for T2N0 glottic carcinoma: does the “2” stand for twice-daily treatment? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:322–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Trotti A, Pajak TF, Emami B, Hammond E, Jones C, Morrison W, Sagar S, Ridge J, Fu KK, Ang K (2006) A randomized trial of hyperfractionation versus standard fractionation in T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 66(Suppl 1):S15Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ohguri T, Imada H, Nakano K, Yahara K, Udaka T, Suzuki H, Korogi Y (2008) Concurrent hyperfractionated radiotherapy and carboplatin with transoral debulking microsurgery for T2N0 glottic cancer. Head Neck 30:1027–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Niibe Y, Nakayama M, Matsubayashi T, Takahashi H, Kitano M, Okamoto M, Hayakawa K (2007) Effectiveness of concurrent radiation therapy with UFT or TS-1 for T2N0 glottic cancer in Japan. Anticancer Res 27:3497–3500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hirvikoski P, Virtaniemi J, Kumpulainen E, Johansson R, Kosma VM (2002) Supraglottic and glottic carcinomas: clinically and biologically distinct entities? Eur J Cancer 38:1717–1723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Stringer SP, Cassisi NJ, Million RR (1990) Carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx: a basis for comparing the results of radiotherapy and surgery. Head Neck 12:204–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bhalavat RL, Fakih AR, Mistry RC, Mahantshetty U (2003) Radical radiation vs surgery plus post-operative radiation in advanced (resectable) supraglottic larynx and pyriform sinus cancers: a prospective randomized study. Eur J Surg Oncol 29:750–756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sessions DG, Lenox J, Spector GJ (2005) Supraglottic laryngeal cancer: analysis of treatment results. Laryngoscope 115:1402–1410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Groome PA, O’Sullivan B, Irish JC, Rothwell DM, Schulze K, Warde PR, Schneider KM, Mackenzie RG, Hodson DI, Hammond JA, Gulavita SP, Eapen LJ, Dixon PF, Bissett RJ, Mackillop WJ (2003) Management and outcome differences in supraglottic cancer between Ontario, Canada, and the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results areas of the United States. J Clin Oncol 21:496–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bhalavat RL, Pathak KA, Mahantshetty U, Jamema SV (2007) Brachytherapy boost: a novel approach for epiglottic carcinoma. Brachytherapy 6:212–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Hinerman RW, Malyapa RS, Werning JW, Amdur RJ, Villaret DB (2007) Multidisciplinary management of laryngeal carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69(Suppl 2):S12–S14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Reddy SP, Hong RL, Nagda S, Emami B (2007) Effect of tumor bulk on local control and survival of patients with T1 glottic cancer: a 30-year experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 69:1389–1394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dagan R, Morris CG, Bennett JA, Mancuso AA, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Mendenhall WM (2007) Prognostic significance of paraglottic space invasion in T2N0 glottic carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol 30:186–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Freeman DE, Mancuso AA, Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Million RR (1990) Irradiation alone for supraglottic larynx carcinoma: can CT findings predict treatment results? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 19:485–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mancuso AA (1991) Evaluation and staging of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In: Silver CE (ed) Laryngeal Cancer. Thieme, New York, pp 46–94Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chang AR, Wu HG, Park CI, Jun YK, Kim CW (2008) Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclin D1 in pretreatment biopsies as a predictive factor of radiotherapy efficacy in early glottic cancer. Head Neck 30:852–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lehnerdt GF, Franz P, Winterhoff S, Bankfalvi A, Grehl S, Lang S, Schmid KW, Siffert W, Jahnke K, Frey UH (2008) The GNAS1 T393C polymorphism predicts survival in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx. Laryngoscope 118:2172–2176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pai HH, Rochon L, Clark B, Black M, Shenouda G (1998) Overexpression of p53 protein does not predict local-regional control or survival in patients with early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:37–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rydell R, Schalén L, Fex S, Elner A (1995) Voice evaluation before and after laser excision vs. radiotherapy of T1A glottic carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol 115:560–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sjögren EV, van Rossum MA, Langeveld TP, Voerman MS, van de Kamp VA, Friebel MO, Wolterbeek R, Baatenburg de Jong RJ (2008) Voice outcome in T1a midcord glottic carcinoma: laser surgery vs radiotherapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 134:965–972PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bahannan AA, Zábrodsky M, Cerny L, Chovanec M, Lohynska R (2007) Quality of life following endoscopic resection or radio-therapy for early glottic cancer. Saudi Med J 28:598–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bibby JR, Cotton SM, Perry A, Corry JF (2008) Voice outcomes after radiotherapy treatment for early glottic cancer: assessment using multidimensional tools. Head Neck 30:600–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hong WK, O’Donoghue GM, Sheetz S, Fofonoff S, Dorman EB, Welch J, Vaughan CW, Karp DD, Willett B, Strong S (1985) Sequential response patterns to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer: potential impact of treatment in advanced laryngeal cancer. Prog Clin Biol Res 201:191–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    The Department of Veterans Affairs Laryngeal Cancer Study Group (1991) Induction chemotherapy plus radiation compared with surgery plus radiation in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 324:1685–1690Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chen AY, Schrag N, Hao Y, Flanders WD, Kepner J, Stewart A, Ward E (2006) Changes in treatment of advanced laryngeal cancer 1985–2001. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 135:831–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lefebvre JL, Chevalier D, Luboinski B, Kirkpatrick A, Collette L, Sahmoud T (1996) Larynx preservation in pyriform sinus cancer: preliminary results of a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer phase III trial. EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:890–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Forastiere AA, Goepfert H, Maor M, Pajak TF, Weber R, Morrison W, Glisson B, Trotti A, Ridge JA, Chao C, Peters G, Lee DJ, Leaf A, Ensley J, Cooper J (2003) Concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy for organ preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. N Engl J Med 349:2091–2098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Adelstein DJ, Rodriguez CP (2008) Current and emerging standards of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Semin Oncol 35:211–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Forastiere AA (2008) Chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer. J Surg Oncol 97:701–707PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Koness RJ, Glicksman A, Liu L, Coachman N, Landman C, Slotman G, Wanebo HJ (1997) Recurrence patterns with concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and accelerated hyperfractionated radiotherapy in stage III and IV head and neck cancer patients. Am J Surg 174:532–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Dequanter D, Lothaire P (2008) The role of salvage surgery in organ preservation strategies in advanced head and neck cancer. B-ENT 4:77–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guadagnolo BA, Haddad RI, Posner MR, Weeks L, Wirth LJ, Norris CM, Sullivan CA, Goguen L, Busse PM, Tishler R (2005) Organ preservation and treatment toxicity with induction chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy or chemoradiation for advanced laryngeal cancer. Am J Clin Oncol 28:371–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rodriguez CP, Adelstein DJ, Rybicki LA, Saxton JP, Lorenz RR, Wood BG, Strome M, Esclamado RM, Lavertu P, Carroll MA (2008) Clinical predictors of larynx preservation after multiagent concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Head Neck 30:1535–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cmelak AJ, Li S, Goldwasser MA, Murphy B, Cannon M, Pinto H, Rosenthal DI, Gillison M, Forastiere AA (2007) Phase II trial of chemoradiation for organ preservation in resectable stage III or IV squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx or oropharynx: results of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E2399. J Clin Oncol 25:3971–3977PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Biete Solà A, Marruecos Querol J, Calvo Manuel FA, Verger Fransoy E, Rovirosa Casino A, Grau de Castro JJ, de Las Heras González M, Ramos Aguerri A, Palacios Eito A, Veiras Candal C, Solano López MV (2007) Phase II trial: concurrent radio-chemotherapy with weekly docetaxel for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck. Clin Transl Oncol 9:244–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Mantz CA, Vokes EE, Kies MS, Mittal B, Witt ME, List MA, Weichselbaum RR, Haraf DJ (2001) Sequential induction chemotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in the management of locoregionally advanced laryngeal cancer. Ann Oncol 12:343–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Tai SK, Yang MH, Wang LW, Tsai TL, Chu PY, Wang YF, Huang JL, Chang SY (2008) Chemoradiotherapy laryngeal preservation for advanced hypopharyngeal cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol 38:521–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rapidis AD, Trichas M, Stavrinidis E, Roupakia A, Ioannidou G, Kritselis G, Liossi P, Giannakouras G, Douzinas EE, Katsilieris I (2006) Induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: final results from a phase II study with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil with a four-year follow-up. Oral Oncol 42:675–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Posner MR, Hershock DM, Blajman CR, Mickiewicz E, Winquist E, Gorbounova V, Tjulandin S, Shin DM, Cullen K, Ervin TJ, Murphy BA, Raez LE, Cohen RB, Spaulding M, Tishler RB, Roth B, Viroglio Rdel C, Venkatesan V, Romanov I, Agarwala S, Harter KW, Dugan M, Cmelak A, Markoe AM, Read PW, Steinbrenner L, Colevas AD, Norris CM Jr, Haddad RI (2007) TAX 324 Study Group. TAX 324 Study Group. Cisplatin and fluorouracil alone or with docetaxel in head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 357:1705–1715PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vermorken JB, Remenar E, van Herpen C, Gorlia T, Mesia R, Degardin M, Stewart JS, Jelic S, Betka J, Preiss JH, van den Weyngaert D, Awada A, Cupissol D, Kienzer HR, Rey A, Desaunois I, Bernier J, Lefebvre JL (2007) EORTC 24971/TAX 323 Study Group. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, and docetaxel in unresectable head and neck cancer. N Engl J Med 357:1695–1704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Beitler JJ, Cooper JS (2009) Seduction by induction? J Clin Oncol 27:9–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Laccourreye O, Brasnu D, Bassot V, Ménard M, Khayat D, Laccourreye H (1996) Cisplatin-fluorouracil exclusive chemotherapy for T1–T3N0 glottic squamous cell carcinoma complete clinical responders: five year results. J Clin Oncol 14:2331–2336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Laccourreye O, Veivers D, Bassot V, Ménard M, Brasnu D, Laccourreye H (2002) Analysis of local recurrence in patients with selected T1–3N0M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the true vocal cord managed with a platinum-based chemotherapy-alone regimen for cure. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 111:315–321; discussion 321–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Bonfils P, Trotoux J, Bassot V (2007) Chemotherapy alone in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. J Laryngol Otol 121:143–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Holsinger FC, Kies MS, Diaz EM Jr, Gillenwater AM, Lewin JS, Ginsberg LE, Glisson BS, Garden AS, Ark N, Lin HY, Lee JJ, El-Naggar AK, Ki Hong W, Shin DM, Khuri FR (2009) Durable long-term remission with chemotherapy alone for stage II to IV laryngeal cancer. J Clin Oncol 27:1976–1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Holsinger FC, Lin HY, Bassot V, Laccourreye O (2009) Platin-based exclusive chemotherapy for selected patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and pharynx. Cancer June 23 [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Forastiere AA, Shaha AR (2009) Chemotherapy alone for laryngeal preservation—is it possible? J Clin Oncol 27:1933–1934PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wheeler RH, Spencer S, Buchsbaum D, Robert F (1999) Monoclonal antibodies as potentiators of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the management of head and neck cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 11:187–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pomerantz RG, Grandis JR (2004) The epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network in head and neck carcinogenesis and implications for targeted therapy. Semin Oncol 31:734–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Bonner JA, Harari PM, Giralt J, Azarnia N, Shin DM, Cohen RB, Jones CU, Sur R, Raben D, Jassem J, Ove R, Kies MS, Baselga J, Youssoufian H, Amellal N, Rowinsky EK, Ang KK (2006) Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. N Engl J Med 354:567–578PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Caudell JJ, Sawrie SM, Spencer SA, Desmond RA, Carroll WR, Peters GE, Nabell LM, Meredith RF, Bonner JA (2008) Locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer treated with primary radiotherapy: a comparison of the addition of cetuximab or chemotherapy and the impact of protocol treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71:676–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Machtay M, Moughan J, Trotti A, Garden AS, Weber RS, Cooper JS, Forastiere A, Ang KK (2008) Factors associated with severe late toxicity after concurrent chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer: an RTOG analysis. J Clin Oncol 26:3582–3589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Langerman A, Maccracken E, Kasza K, Haraf DJ, Vokes EE, Stenson KM (2007) Aspiration in chemoradiated patients with head and neck cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:1289–1295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Carroll WR, Locher JL, Canon CL, Bohannon IA, McColloch NL, Magnuson JS (2008) Pretreatment swallowing exercises improve swallow function after chemoradiation. Laryngoscope 118:39–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Lawson JD, Otto K, Grist W, Johnstone PA (2008) Frequency of esophageal stenosis after simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. Am J Otolaryngol 29:13–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ferlito A, Shaha AR, Lefebvre JL, Silver CE, Rinaldo A (2002) Organ and voice preservation in advanced laryngeal cancer. Acta Otolaryngol 122:438–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Herranz González-Botas J, Gavilán Bouzas J (1999) Quality of life and cancer of the larynx (in Spanish). Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 50:276–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Beitler JJ, Smith RV, Owen RP, Silver CE, Mazumdar M, Wadler S (2007) Phase II clinical trial of parenteral hydroxyurea and hyper-fractionated, accelerated external beam radiation therapy in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: toxicity and efficacy with continuous ribonucleoside reductase inhibition. Head Neck 29:18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Smith RV, Goldman SY, Beitler JJ, Wadler SS (2004) Decreased short- and long-term swallowing problems with altered radiotherapy dosing used in an organ-sparing protocol for advanced pharyngeal carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:831–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Smith RV, Kotz T, Beitler JJ, Wadler SS (2000) Long-term swallowing problems after organ preservation therapy with concomitant radiation therapy and intravenous hydroxyurea: initial results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 126:384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dworkin JP, Hill SL, Stachler RJ, Meleca RJ, Kewson D (2006) Swallowing function outcomes following nonsurgical therapy for advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. Dysphagia 21:66–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fung K, Lyden TH, Lee J, Urba SG, Worden F, Eisbruch A, Tsien C, Bradford CR, Chepeha DB, Hogikyan ND, Prince ME, Teknos TN, Wolf GT (2005) Voice and swallowing outcomes of an organ-preservation trial for advanced laryngeal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 63:1395–1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nguyen NP, Moltz CC, Frank C, Vos P, Millar C, Smith HJ, Lee H, Karlsson U, Nguyen PD, Martinez T, Nguyen LM, Sallah S (2007) Aspiration rate following nonsurgical therapy for laryngeal cancer. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 69:116–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hanna E, Sherman A, Cash D, Adams D, Vural E, Fan CY, Suen JY (2004) Quality of life for patients following total laryngectomy vs chemoradiation for laryngeal preservation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:875–879PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bourhis J, Le Maître A, Pignon J, Ang K, Bernier J, Overgaard J, Tobias J, Saunders M, Adelstein D, O’Sullivan B, Mach-Nc March Groups (2006) Impact of age on treatment effect in locally advanced head and neck cancer: two individual patient data meta-analyses. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 24(18s):5501Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Clayman GL, Eicher SA, Sicard MW, Razmpa E, Goepfert H (1998) Surgical outcomes in head and neck cancer patients 80 years of age and older. Head Neck 20:216–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lee SC, Shores CG, Weissler MC (2008) Salvage surgery after failed primary concomitant chemoradiation. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 16:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Genden EM, Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Silver CE, Fagan JJ, Suárez C, Langendijk JA, Lefebvre JL, Bradley PJ, Leemans CR, Chen AY, Jose J, Wolf GT (2008) Recent changes in the treatment of patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. Head Neck 30:103–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Holsinger FC, Funk E, Roberts DB, Diaz EM Jr (2006) Conservation laryngeal surgery versus total laryngectomy for radiation failure in laryngeal cancer. Head Neck 28:779–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Miura K, Kamata SE, Kawabata K, Tada Y, Masubuti T, Nakamura N (2007) Clinical analysis of 74 cases of laryngeal cancer who underwent frontolateral partial vertical laryngectomy—usefulness of salvage surgery after failure of a full course of radiotherapy (in Japanese). Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 110:571–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Piazza C, Peretti G, Cattaneo A, Garrubba F, De Zinis LO, Nicolai P (2007) Salvage surgery after radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer: from endoscopic resections to open-neck partial and total laryngectomies. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:1037–1043PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Farrag TY, Koch WM, Cummings CW, Goldenberg D, Abou-Jaoude PM, Califano JA, Flint PW, Webster K, Tufano RP (2007) Supracricoid laryngectomy outcomes: the Johns Hopkins experience. Laryngoscope 117:129–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lewin JS, Hutcheson KA, Barringer DA, May AH, Roberts DB, Holsinger FC, Diaz EM Jr (2008) Functional analysis of swallowing outcomes after supracricoid partial laryngectomy. Head Neck 30:559–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Nakayama M, Okamoto M, Miyamoto S, Takeda M, Yokobori S, Masaki T, Seino Y (2008) Supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglotto-pexy or cricohyoido-pexy: experience on 32 patients. Auris Nasus Larynx 35:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Deganello A, Gallo O, De Cesare JM, Ninu MB, Gitti G, de’ Campora L, Radici M, de’ Campora E (2008) Supracricoid partial laryngectomy as salvage surgery for radiation therapy failure. Head Neck 30:1064–1071PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Marioni G, Marchese-Ragona R, Lucioni M, Staffieri A (2008) Organ-preservation surgery following failed radiotherapy for laryngeal cancer. Evaluation, patient selection, functional outcome and survival. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 16:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    León X, López M, García J, Viza I, Orús C, Quer M (2007) Supracricoid laryngectomy as salvage surgery after failure of radiation therapy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 264:809–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Laccourreye H, Laccourreye O, Weinstein G, Menard M, Brasnu D (1990) Supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidopexy: a partial laryngeal procedure for selected supraglottic and transglottic carcinomas. Laryngoscope 100:735–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nakayama M, Yao K, Nishiyama K, Nagai H, Ito A, Yokobori S, Okamoto M, Hirose H (2002) Swallowing function after near-total laryngectomy, cricohyoidoepiglottopexy (CHEP), and cricohyoidopexy (CHP) (in Japanese). Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 105:8–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Nemr NK, de Carvalho MB, Köhle J, Leite GC, Rapoport A, Szeliga RM (2007) Functional study of the voice and swallowing following supracricoid laryngectomy. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 73:151–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Makeieff M, Venegoni D, Mercante G, Crampette L, Guerrier B (2005) Supracricoid partial laryngectomies after failure of radiation therapy. Laryngoscope 115:353–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Young VN, Mangus BD, Bumpous JM (2008) Salvage laryngectomy for failed conservative treatment of laryngeal cancer. Laryngoscope 118:1561–1568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Agrawal N, Goldenberg D (2008) Primary and salvage total laryngectomy. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 41:771–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chen AY, Halpern M (2007) Factors predictive of survival in advanced laryngeal cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 133:1270–1276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl E. Silver
    • 1
  • Jonathan J. Beitler
    • 2
  • Ashok R. Shaha
    • 3
  • Alessandra Rinaldo
    • 4
  • Alfio Ferlito
    • 4
  1. 1.Departments of Surgery and OtolaryngologyMontefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of MedicineBronxUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Radiation Oncology, Otolaryngology and Medical OncologyEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Head and Neck ServiceMemorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Surgical Sciences, ENT ClinicUniversity of Udine, Policlinico UniversitarioUdineItaly

Personalised recommendations