Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared between lean and overweight/obese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study



To investigate the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the 5-year follow-up after polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) diagnosis compared between lean and overweight/obese groups.


This retrospective cohort study included 400 prediabetes PCOS women who attended our clinic. Participants were divided into either the lean group (body mass index [BMI]: < 23 kg/m2) or the overweight/obese group (BMI: ≥ 23 kg/m2). Patient demographic, clinical characteristics, metabolic profiles, and laboratory values were collected and compared between groups at baseline and during follow-up for 5 years.


At the end of the follow-up, overweight/obese group had a higher risk for developing T2DM than lean group (11.5% vs. 0.5%, p < 0.001). Lean group had a lower incidence of hypertension (3% vs. 38.5%, p < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (35% vs. 53.5%, p < 0.001) than overweight/obese group. The factors found to be independently associated with increased risk for developing T2DM were BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 (odds ratio [OR]: 1.075, p = 0.047), non-use of oral combined contraceptive pills (OR: 0.312, p = 0.028), and impaired fasting glucose at baseline (OR: 38.167, p < 0.001).


Overweight/obese PCOS patients were found to be at significantly higher risk for developing T2DM than lean PCOS patients. Higher BMI, IFG at baseline, and non-use of oral contraceptive pills found to be independent predictors of T2DM in PCOS.

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The authors gratefully acknowledge the staff of the Gynecologic Endocrinology Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University who participated in this study, and Mr. Kevin P. Jones of Khon Kaen University International College for assistance with English language editing.


This study was not supported by any funding.

Author information

PC: project development, data analysis, manuscript writing. SI: protocol development, manuscript editing. TW: protocol development. KT: manuscript editing. CD: data collection. NS: data collection.

Correspondence to Suchada Indhavivadhana.

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Ethics approval

The protocol for this study was approved by the Siriraj Institutional Review Board (SIRB) (COA no. Si542/2017).

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All authors declare no personal or professional conflicts of interest relating to any aspect of this study.

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Chantrapanichkul, P., Indhavivadhana, S., Wongwananuruk, T. et al. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus compared between lean and overweight/obese patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a 5-year follow-up study. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2020) doi:10.1007/s00404-019-05423-2

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  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Lean PCOS patients
  • Overweight/obese PCOS patients
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • 5-year follow-up
  • Reproductive-aged women