Trends and risk factors of stillbirth in Taiwan 2006–2013: a population-based study

  • Chi-Chen Sun
  • Hsu-Huan Chou
  • Li-Lan ChuangEmail author
Maternal-Fetal Medicine



To examine temporal trends in stillbirth and its associated risk factors in Taiwan.


This was a population-based cohort study. Data were extracted from the Birth Certificate Application database. Singleton births at 28 or more gestational weeks were included. A total of 1,536,796 births, including 3741 stillbirths, were analyzed from January 2006 to December 2013.


The stillbirth rate was 2.4 per 1000 births and there was no change in the stillbirth rate during the study period. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for stillbirth was 1.28 for maternal age between 35 and 40 years and 1.79 for maternal age ≥ 41 years, with 21–34 years as the reference. The risk for stillbirth increased in single women (aOR, 2.4), female baby (aOR, 1.08), small for gestational age (aOR, 6.34) and large for gestational age (aOR, 1.52) infants, and women with hypertension (aOR, 3.78), diabetes mellitus (aOR, 2.04), anemia (aOR, 1.65), and oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios (aOR, 2.46).Women with heart disease and maternal age ≤ 20 years had no significant association with stillbirth after adjusting for various risk factors.


Although the rate of stillbirth was stable during the study period, the incidence of risk factors associated with stillbirth, such as advanced maternal age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and anemia, had increased over time. Understanding about the risk factors might change protocols and allow for earlier detection of problems and prevention of stillbirths. Prevention or management of risk factors should be undertaken to reduce stillbirth rate.


Stillbirth Trends Risk factors Third trimester 



This study was supported by grants from the Cheng Hsin General Hospital (Grant number: CHGH105-35) and from the Chang Gung Medical Foundation (Grant number: BMRPA49) of Taiwan.

Author contributions

CCS: conceptualization, project administration and development, manuscript writing. HHC: methodology, resources manuscript writing. LLC: data management, data analysis, supervision manuscript review and editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nursing DepartmentCheng Hsin General HospitalTaipeiTaiwan, ROC
  2. 2.Department of General SurgeryChang Gung Memorial Hospital, LinkouTaoyuan CityTaiwan, ROC
  3. 3.Department of NursingChang Gung University of Science and TechnologyTaoyuan CityTaiwan, ROC
  4. 4.Department of Emergency MedicineChang Gung Memorial Hospital, LinkouTaoyuan CityTaiwan, ROC

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