Recurrent pregnancy loss and future risk of female malignancies
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To investigate whether patients with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) have an increased risk for future female malignancies.
A retrospective population-based study compared the incidence of long-term female malignancies in a cohort of women with and without a history of RPL (2 or more consecutive pregnancy losses). Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2013, with a mean follow-up duration of 12 years. Women with known malignancies before the index pregnancy were excluded from the analysis. Female malignancies were divided according to specific type including ovary, breast, uterine and uterine cervix. Kaplan–Meier survival curve was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of malignancies. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for female malignancy after controlling for confounders.
During the study period, 106,265 patients met the inclusion criteria; 6.6% (n = 7052) of patients had a diagnosis of RPL. During the follow-up period, patients with RPL had a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with female malignancies as a group, while individually there was an increased risk of breast and uterine cervix cancer. Using a Kaplan–Meier survival curve, patients with a history of RPL had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of female malignancies. Using a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders such as smoking, parity, and diabetes mellitus, a history of RPL remained independently associated with female malignancies (adjusted HR 1.4; P = 0.003).
RPL is independently associated with long-term female malignancies. Patients with a history of RPL may benefit from counseling and screening for breast and uterine cervix cancer in particular.
KeywordsRecurrent pregnancy loss Long-term risk Ovarian cancer Uterine cancer Breast cancer Cervical cancer
RC manuscript writing, protocol development, project administration. ES protocol development, manuscript editing. OB manuscript editing, project administration. RS data analysis. RK protocol development, manuscript editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval with regard to research involving human participants and/or animals
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
No humans involved in this article.
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