Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 296, Issue 1, pp 43–51 | Cite as

Higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in German pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women

  • Sandra Gellert
  • Alexander Ströhle
  • Norman Bitterlich
  • Andreas Hahn
Maternal-Fetal Medicine



Adequate vitamin D status is crucial for normal development of the fetus and for maternal health. As data on vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) in German women of different states of pregnancy were not available, this study compared the vitamin D status of German women in all trimesters of pregnancy with that of non-pregnant women.


The study sample of 858 women (18–45 years) was recruited from April 2013 to March 2015 as a part of the cross-sectional Germany-wide VitaMinFemin study. Serum 25(OH)D levels were determined using chemiluminescence immunoassay.


A total of 78.1% of the pregnant women and 53.9% of the non-pregnant women had a vitamin D status <50.0 nmol/L (p < 0.001). In pregnant women, the multivariate binary analysis showed that winter [odds ratio (OR) 13.5], longitude of residence between 6.3°E and 8.9°E (OR 2.0) or 9.0°E and 10.9°E (OR 2.3) and third trimester (OR 2.3) were associated with a higher risk of vitamin D status <25.0 nmol/L, whereas increasing age per one year (OR 0.9) with a lower risk. Compared with non-pregnant women, pregnant women were 3.7 times more likely to have a vitamin D status <25.0 nmol/L.


A low vitamin D status is prevalent among German pregnant women and should be improved to supply mother and fetus adequately.


Vitamin D 25(OH)D Pregnancy Germany 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Science and Human NutritionLeibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Department of BiostatisticsMedizin and Service GmbHChemnitzGermany

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