Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 295, Issue 4, pp 833–838 | Cite as

Breech presentation at term and associated obstetric risks factors—a nationwide population based cohort study

  • Georg Macharey
  • Mika Gissler
  • Leena Rahkonen
  • Veli-Matti Ulander
  • Mervi Väisänen-Tommiska
  • Mika Nuutila
  • Seppo Heinonen
Maternal-Fetal Medicine



The aim of this study was to estimate whether breech presentation at term was associated with known individual obstetric risk factors for adverse fetal outcome.


This was a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study. Obstetric risks in all breech and vertex singleton deliveries at term were compared between the years 2005 and 2014. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine significant risk factors.


The breech presentation rate at term for singleton pregnancies was 2.4%. The stillbirth rate in term breech presentation was significantly higher compared to cephalic presentation (0.2 vs 0.1%). The odds ratios (95% CIs) for fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, gestational diabetes, a history of cesarean section and congenital fetal abnormalities were 1.19 CI (1.07–1.32), 1.42 CI (1.27–1.57), 1.06 CI (1.00–1.13), 2.13 (1.98–2.29) and 2.01 CI (1.92–2.11).


The study showed that breech presentation at term on its own was significantly associated with antenatal stillbirth and a number of individual obstetric risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes. The risk factors included oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, history of caesarean section and congenital anomalies.


Breech presentation Predicting factors Risk factors Fetal growth restriction Stillbirth Oligohydramnios 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyHelsinki University Hospital (HUS), University of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL)HelsinkiFinland

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