Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 295, Issue 4, pp 811–816 | Cite as

Cardiotocography and the evolution into computerised cardiotocography in the management of intrauterine growth restriction

  • Christina KouskoutiEmail author
  • Kerstin Regner
  • Julia Knabl
  • Franz Kainer


Timely recognition and appropriate management of high-risk pregnancies, such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), are of paramount importance for every obstetrician. After the initial screening of IUGR fetuses through sonographic fetometry and Doppler, the focus is shifted to the appropriate monitoring and timing of delivery. This can, especially in cases of early IUGR, become a very difficult task. At this point, cardiotocography (CTG) is introduced as a major tool in the day-to-day monitoring of the antenatal well-being of the IUGR fetus. Since the first introduction of CTG up to the nowadays widely spreading implementation of computerised CTG in the clinical practice, there has been great progress in the recording of the fetal heart rate, as well as its interpretation. Focus of this review is to offer an understanding of the evolution of CTG from its early development to modern computerised methods and to provide an insight as to where the future of CTG is leading, especially in the monitoring of IUGR.


Cardiotocography Computerised cardiotocography Short term variation IUGR 


Compliance with ethical standards



Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This review article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Perinatal MedicineKlinik HallerwieseNurembergGermany

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