Natural Killer T cell subsets in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: a fresh look to a busy corner
- 429 Downloads
Invariant Natural Killer T cells (iNKT) are a specialized subset of T cells that use their T cell receptor to recognize self and foreign lipids presented by CD1d as cognate antigens. iNKT have been shown to have either protective or harmful roles in many pathological states, including microbial infection, autoimmune disease, allergic disease and cancer. Accumulating evidence seems to suggest that this unique T cell subset combines both classically innate and adaptive immunologic characteristic. Considering these recent data, the aim of work was to review the current knowledge about iNKT in eutopic and ectopic endometrium.
Narrative overview, synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases.
Currently, the immune paradigm of reproduction is gradually changing shape: recent data confirmed that cytokine milieu influences the development and plasticity of different subtype of mononuclear cells, and in turn it can be influenced by the cytokine production of the latter. Among the different NKT cell populations, the recently characterized iNKT seems to share actions typical both of innate and adaptive immunity, being capable of secreting Th1 as well as Th2 cytokine pattern. Moreover, several subtypes of iNKT were identified, who partially express the same master transcription factors of the corresponding T cells counterpart.
Although the data about iNKT’s actions in eutopic and ectopic endometrium are still scarce, it is possible to hypothesize that future investigation can shed light on this point, thus allowing a better knowledge about the regulation of these two microenvironments.
KeywordsInvariant natural killer T cells Immunity Endometrium Endometriosis
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no proprietary, financial, professional or other personal interest of any nature in any product, service or company. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
- 40.Yuan J, Nguyen CK, Liu X et al (2012) Lin28b reprograms adult bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors to mediate fetal-like lymphopoiesis. Science 335:1195–1200. doi: 10.1126/science.1216557
- 42.Rachitskaya AV, Hansen AM, Horai R et al (2008) Cutting edge: NKT cells constitutively express IL-23 receptor and RORgammat and rapidly produce IL-17 upon receptor ligation in an IL-6-independent fashion. J Immunol 180:5167–5171. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.180.8.5167 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 57.Dellabona P, Abrignani S, Casorati G (2014) iNKT cell help to B cells: a cooperative job between innate and adaptive immune responses. Eur J Immunol. doi: 10.1002/eji.201344399.This
- 71.Somerset DA, Zheng Y, Kilby MD et al (2004) Normal human pregnancy is associated with an elevation in the immune suppressive CD25 + CD4 + regulatory T-cell subset. Immunology 112:38–43. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2004.01869.x
- 78.Hunt JS, Vassmer D, Ferguson TA, Miller L (1997) Fas ligand is positioned in mouse uterus and placenta to prevent trafficking of activated leukocytes between the mother and the conceptus. J Immunol (Baltimore, Md 1950) 158:4122–4128Google Scholar
- 85.Huang Y, Zhu XY, Du MR, Li DJ (2008) Human trophoblasts recruited T lymphocytes and monocytes into decidua by secretion of chemokine CXCL16 and interaction with CXCR6 in the first-trimester pregnancy. J Immunol (Baltimore, Md 1950) 180:2367–2375. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.180.4.2367
- 102.Ling B, Yao F, Zhou Y et al (2007) Cell-mediated immunity imbalance in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Cell Mol Immunol 4:71–75Google Scholar
- 110.Salmeri FM, Lagana AS, Sofo V et al (2015) Behavior of tumor necrosis factor- and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1/tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 system in mononuclear cells recovered from peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis at different stages. Reprod Sci 22:165–172. doi: 10.1177/1933719114536472
- 114.Garzetti GG, Ciavattini A, Provinciali M et al (1993) Natural killer cell activity in endometriosis: correlation between serum estradiol levels and cytotoxicity. Obs Gynecol 81:665–668Google Scholar