Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 291, Issue 1, pp 223–230 | Cite as

Leiomyomas beyond the uterus; benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis with paraaortic metastasizing endometriosis and intravenous leiomyomatosis: a case series and review of the literature

  • Mohamad S. Mahmoud
  • Kavita Desai
  • Farr R. NezhatEmail author
Case Report


Uterine leiomyomas affect 20–30 % of women 35 years and older. Extrauterine leiomyomas are rare and present a greater diagnostic challenge. Those unusual growth patterns occur more often in women of reproductive age with a history of hysterectomy or surgery for uterine leiomyomas. They have been reported in the literature in case reports and small case series and include benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML), disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis, intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL), parasitic leiomyomas, and retroperitoneal growth. In this case series we present a case of BML with a first report of concomitant endometriosis metastasis to paraaortic lymphnodes, and a case of IVL. The findings and surgical management of those cases, as well as a review of the literature pertinent to those entities, are also presented.


Benign metastasizing leiomyoma Intravenous leiomyoma Endometriosis metastasis 


Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamad S. Mahmoud
    • 1
  • Kavita Desai
    • 1
  • Farr R. Nezhat
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of minimally Invasive GynecologySt. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital CenterNew YorkUSA

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