Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 287, Issue 4, pp 813–818 | Cite as

The influence of cigarette smoking on a population of infertile men and women

  • Donatella Caserta
  • Giulia Bordi
  • Noemi Di Segni
  • Angelo D’Ambrosio
  • Maddalena Mallozzi
  • Massimo Moscarini
Reproductive Medicine

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed at investigating the effect of cigarette smoking on semen parameters in infertile men and on antral follicle count (AFC) and reproductive hormone levels in infertile women.

Methods

In 648 men (200 smokers and 448 non-smokers) sperm concentration, motility and morphology were compared according to smoking status. In the female population, AFC and basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol were measured in 296 women (102 smokers and 194 non-smokers). Statistical analysis of data was performed using t test, χ²-test and Spearman’s correlation.

Results

Among the male population, smokers had significantly lower sperm concentration and motility than non-smokers. Sperm normal morphology was reduced in smokers, although this difference did not reach statistical significance. No significant correlation was found between sperm parameters and the intensity of smoking. In the female population, AFC was reduced in smokers compared with non-smokers. Women who smoked had significantly higher FSH levels. No significant difference was found in LH and estradiol levels according to smoking status. The number of pack-years was negatively correlated to AFC and positively correlated to FSH levels.

Conclusion

Cigarette smoking is associated with damaging effects on sperm parameters in infertile men and with ovarian reserve alteration in infertile women, as reflected by reduced AFC and increased FSH levels. Every smoker should be encouraged to stop smoking to prevent the damage of the toxins contained in cigarette smoking and preserve their own reproductive potential.

Keywords

Cigarette smoking Infertility Antral follicle count Reproductive hormones Semen parameters 

Notes

Conflict of interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Saleh RA, Agarwal A, Sharma RK, Nelson DR, Thomas AJ Jr (2002) Effect of cigarette smoking on levels of seminal oxidative stress in infertile men: a prospective study. Fertil Steril 78:491–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine (2008) Smoking and infertility. Fertil Steril 90:S254–S259Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vine MF, Margolin BH, Morrison HI, Hulka BS (1994) Cigarette smoking and sperm density: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril 61:35–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Künzle R, Mueller MD, Hänggi W, Birkhäuser MH, Drescher H, Bersinger NA (2003) Semen quality of male smokers and nonsmokers in infertile couples. Fertil Steril 79:287–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sepaniak S, Forges T, Gerard H, Foliguet B, Bene MC, Monnier-Barbarino P (2006) The influence of cigarette smoking on human sperm quality and DNA fragmentation. Toxicology 223:54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Collodel G, Capitani S, Pammolli A, Giannerini V, Geminiani M, Moretti E (2010) Semen quality of male idiopathic infertile smokers and nonsmokers: an ultrastructural study. J Androl 31:108–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Freour T, Masson D, Mirallie S, Jean M, Bach K, Dejoie T, Barriere P (2008) Active smoking compromises IVF outcome and affects ovarian reserve. Reprod Biomed Online 16:96–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaleta D, Usidame I, Polanska K (2011) Tobacco advertisements targeted on women: creating an awareness among women. Cent Eur J Public Health 19:73–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hull MG, North K, Taylor H, Farrow A, Ford WC (2000) Delayed conception and active and passive smoking: the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood study team. Fertil Steril 74:725–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caserta D, Mantovani A, Marci R, Fazi A, Ciardo F, La Rocca C, Maranghi F, Moscarini M (2011) Environment and women’s reproductive health. Hum Reprod Update 17:418–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Waylen AL, Metwally M, Jones GL, Wilkinson AJ, Ledger WL (2009) Effects of cigarette smoking upon clinical outcomes of assisted reproduction: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update 15:31–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gold EB (2011) The timing of the age at which natural menopause occurs. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am 38:425–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Windham GC, Mitchell P, Anderson M, Lasley BL (2005) Cigarette smoking and effects on hormone function in premenopausal women. Environ Health Perspect 113:1285–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Whitcomb BW, Bodach SD, Mumford SL, Perkins NJ, Trevisan M, Wactawski-Wende J, Liu A, Schisterman EF (2010) Ovarian function and cigarette smoking. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 24:433–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dafopoulos A, Dafopoulos K, Georgoulias P, Galazios G, Limberis V, Tsikouras P, Koutlaki N, Maroulis G (2010) Smoking and AMH levels in women with normal reproductive history. Arch Gynecol Obstet 282:215–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lambert-Messerlian GM, Harlow BL (2006) The influence of depression, body mass index, and smoking on serum inhibin B levels in late reproductive-aged women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1496–1500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gottardo F, Kliesh S, World Health Organization (2011) Semen analysis: spermiogram according to WHO 2010 criteria. Urologe A 50:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li Y, Lin H, Li Y, Cao J (2011) Association between socio-psycho-behavioral factors and male semen quality: systematic review and meta-analyses. Fertil Steril 95:116–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ahmadnia H, Ghanbari M, Moradi MR, Khaje-Dalouee M (2007) Effect of cigarette smoke on spermatogenesis in rats. Urol J 4:159–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramlau-Hansen CH, Thulstrup AM, Aggerholm AS, Jensen MS, Toft G, Bonde JP (2007) Is smoking a risk factor for decreased semen quality? A cross-sectional analysis. Hum Reprod 22:188–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Elshal MF, El-Sayed IH, Elsaied MA, El-Masry SA, Kumosani TA (2009) Sperm head defects and disturbances in spermatozoal chromatin and DNA integrities in idiopathic infertile subjects: association with cigarette smoking. Clin Biochem 42:589–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pasqualotto FF, Fonseca GP, Pasqualotto EB (2008) Azoospermia after treatment with clomiphene citrate in patients with oligospermia. Fertil Steril 90:2014.e11–2014.e12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gaur DS, Talekar M, Pathak VP (2007) Effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men. Singap Med J 48:119–123Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ozgur K, Isikoglu M, Seleker M, Donmez L (2005) Semen quality of smoking and non-smoking men in infertile couples in a Turkish population. Arch Gynecol Obstet 271:109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Abdalla H, Thum MY (2004) An elevated basal FSH reflects a quantitative rather than qualitative decline of the ovarian reserve. Hum Reprod 19:893–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Di Prospero F, Luzi S, Iacopini Z (2004) Cigarette smoking damages women’s reproductive life. Reprod Biomed Online 8:246–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Waylen AL, Jones GL, Ledger WL (2010) Effect of cigarette smoking upon reproductive hormones in women of reproductive age: a retrospective analysis. Reprod Biomed Online 20:861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Augood C, Duckitt K, Templeton AA (1998) Smoking and female infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod 13:1532–1539PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kinney A, Kline J, Kelly A, Reuss ML, Levin B (2007) Smoking, alcohol and caffeine in relation to ovarian age during the reproductive years. Hum Reprod 22:1175–1185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jurisicova A, Taniuchi A, Li H, Shang Y, Antenos M, Detmar J, Xu J, Matikainen T, Benito Hernández A, Nunez G, Casper RF (2007) Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons diminishes murine ovarian reserve via induction of Harakiri. J Clin Invest 117:3971–3978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Westhoff C, Murphy P, Heller D (2000) Predictors of ovarian follicle number. Fertil Steril 74:624–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neal MS, Zhu J, Holloway AC, Foster WG (2007) Follicle growth is inhibited by benzo-[a]-pyrene, at concentrations representative of human exposure, in an isolated rat follicle culture assay. Hum Reprod 22:961–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baron JA, La Vecchia C, Levi F (1990) The anti-oestrogenic effect of cigarette smoking in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 162:502–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Soldin OP, Makambi KH, Soldin SJ, O’Mara DM (2011) Steroid hormone levels associated with passive and active smoking. Steroids 76:653–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Freour T, Masson D, Dessolle L, Allaoua D, Dejoie T, Mirallie S, Jean M, Barriere P (2012) Ovarian reserve and in vitro fertilization cycles outcome according to women smoking status and stimulation regimen. Arch Gynecol Obstet 285:1177–1182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Broer SL, Mol BW, Hendriks D, Broekmans FJ (2009) The role of antimullerian hormone in prediction of outcome after IVF: comparison with the antral follicle count. Fertil Steril 91:705–714PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donatella Caserta
    • 1
  • Giulia Bordi
    • 1
  • Noemi Di Segni
    • 1
  • Angelo D’Ambrosio
    • 1
  • Maddalena Mallozzi
    • 1
  • Massimo Moscarini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Woman Health and Territory’s Medicine, S. Andrea HospitalUniversity of Rome SapienzaRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations