Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 287, Issue 4, pp 647–651 | Cite as

The transverse section of the fetus urinary bladder is circular and, for volume estimation, an appropriate longitudinal section is sufficient

  • Mats Fagerquist
  • Eli Skytteren
  • Ulf Fagerquist
  • Anders Odén
Maternal-Fetal Medicine

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose was to investigate the transverse shape of the fetal urinary bladder.

Methods

Using 3D ultrasound, an appropriate longitudinal image of fetal urinary bladders was chosen. Perpendicular sections were examined and the transverse bladder image with a minimum of shadows was selected, documented and transferred to a PC. The contour of the transverse bladder image was marked manually and recorded electronically. The mean of radii distances from the centre pixel to each border pixel outlining this bladder image was calculated for each fetus.

Results

In the material comprising 20 fetuses, the range of mean radii was 2.6–18.4 mm and the SD 0.4 mm. The mean wall thickness of the bladders was 2.7 mm and the distance represented by one pixel for different selected depths was 0.3 mm on average.

Conclusions

In view of the current technical limitations, an aberration from the circular shape may not be discernible. For this reason, the transverse shape of the fetal urinary bladder can be regarded as a circle. This means that, for bladder volume estimation, only an appropriate longitudinal section is necessary.

Keywords

Fetus Urinary bladder Ultrasonography Organ volume Shape Measurement Reliability Reproducibility of results 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank Sture G. Blomberg, MD, PhD, both for his enthusiasm and encouragement and for his valuable criticism.

Conflict of interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Gilja OH, Smievoll AI, Thune N, Matre K, Hausken T, Odegaard S, Berstad A (1995) In vivo comparison of 3D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in volume estimation of human kidneys. Ultrasound Med Biol 21(1):25–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riccabona M, Nelson TR, Pretorius DH (1996) Three-dimensional ultrasound: accuracy of distance and volume measurements. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 7(6):429–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Strommen K, Stormark TA, Iversen BM, Matre K (2004) Volume estimation of small phantoms and rat kidneys using three-dimensional ultrasonography and a position sensor. Ultrasound Med Biol 30(9):1109–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lee SM, Park SK, Shim SS, Jun JK, Park JS, Syn HC (2007) Measurement of fetal urine production by three-dimensional ultrasonography in normal pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 30(3):281–286Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Touboul C, Boulvain M, Picone O, Levaillant JM, Frydman R, Senat MV (2008) Normal fetal urine production rate estimated with 3-dimensional ultrasonography using the rotational technique (virtual organ computer-aided analysis). Am J Obstet Gynecol 199(1):57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fagerquist MA, Fagerquist UO, Oden A, Blomberg SG, Mattsson LA (2009) Derivations that enable the testing of fetal urine production as a method of fetal surveillance. Arch Gynecol Obstet 282(5):481–486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nelson TR, Pretorius DH, Hull A, Riccabona M, Sklansky MS, James G (2000) Sources and impact of artifacts on clinical three-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 16(4):374–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fagerquist M, Fagerquist U, Oden A, Blomberg SG (2001) Fetal urine production and accuracy when estimating fetal urinary bladder volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 17(2):132–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fagerquist M, Fagerquist U, Oden A, Blomberg SG (2003) Estimation of fetal urinary bladder volume using the sum-of-cylinders method vs. the ellipsoid formula. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 22(1):67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersson KE, Arner A (2004) Urinary bladder contraction and relaxation: physiology and pathophysiology. Physiol Rev 84(3):935–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Damaser MS (1999) Whole bladder mechanics during filling. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 201:51–58 (discussion 76–102)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fagerquist M, Fagerquist U, Steyskal H, Oden A, Blomberg SG (2002) Accuracy in estimating fetal urinary bladder volume using a modified ultrasound technique. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 19(4):371–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mats Fagerquist
    • 1
  • Eli Skytteren
    • 1
  • Ulf Fagerquist
    • 2
  • Anders Odén
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Innlandet Hospital TrustKongsvinger HospitalKongsvingerNorway
  2. 2.Edutec Inc.LittletonUSA
  3. 3.Chalmers University of TechnologyGothenburgSweden

Personalised recommendations