Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 286, Issue 5, pp 1093–1096

Estimating risk factors for development of preeclampsia in teen mothers

Maternal-Fetal Medicine



Our objective was to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for preeclampsia in a contemporary American teen population.


We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of all teenage deliveries (≤18 years old) at one institution over a 4-year-period. All cases of preeclampsia were identified using the National Working Group for Hypertension in Pregnancy diagnostic criteria and compared to normotensive teenage mothers.


Of the 730 included teen deliveries, 65 (8.9 %) women developed preeclampsia and demonstrated a higher prepregnancy body mass index when compared with controls (32.9 ± 8.4 vs. 30.3 ± 6.1 kg/m2, p = 0.002). Maternal obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, RR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.0–2.8) and gestational weight gain above the Institute of Medicine recommended levels (RR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.5–4.4) were associated with higher risk for development of preeclampsia. When evaluating by severity or onset of disease, excessive weight gain in pregnancy was the strongest risk factor for mild (n = 58) or late onset (n = 54) preeclampsia (RR 2.5, 95 % CI 1.4–3.4).


Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain place the gravid teen at increased risk for preeclampsia. The modifiable nature of these risk factors permits the possibility of intervention and prevention.


Obesity Preeclampsia Pregnancy Teenage 


  1. 1.
    Saftlas AF, Olson DR, Franks AL, Atrash HK, Pokras R (1990) Epidemiology of preeclampsia and eclampsia in the United States, 1979–1986. Am J Obstet Gynecol 163(2):460–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maternal mortality–United States, 1982–1996 (1998) MMWR. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47(34):705–707Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sibai BM, Gordon T, Thom E et al (1995) Risk factors for preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women: a prospective multicenter study. The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Network of Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172(2 Pt 1):642–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sibai BM (2004) Magnesium sulfate prophylaxis in preeclampsia: lessons learned from recent trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol 190(6):1520–1526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Benedetti TJ, Kates R, Williams V (1985) Hemodynamic observations in severe preeclampsia complicated by pulmonary edema. Am J Obstet Gynecol 152(3):330–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Drislane FW, Wang AM (1997) Multifocal cerebral hemorrhage in eclampsia and severe pre-eclampsia. J Neurol 244(3):194–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morriss MC, Twickler DM, Hatab MR, Clarke GD, Peshock RM, Cunningham FG (1997) Cerebral blood flow and cranial magnetic resonance imaging in eclampsia and severe preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 89(4):561–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cunningham FG, Fernandez CO, Hernandez C (1995) Blindness associated with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172(4 Pt 1):1291–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xiao R, Sorensen TK, Williams MA, Luthy DA (2003) Influence of pre-eclampsia on fetal growth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 13(3):157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Friedman SA, Schiff E, Kao L, Sibai BM (1995) Neonatal outcome after preterm delivery for preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172(6):1785–1788 (discussion 1788–1792)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Smith GC, Pell JP, Walsh D (2001) Pregnancy complications and maternal risk of ischaemic heart disease: a retrospective cohort study of 129,290 births. Lancet 357(9273):2002–2006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Irgens HU, Reisaeter L, Irgens LM, Lie RT (2001) Long term mortality of mothers and fathers after pre-eclampsia: population based cohort study. BMJ 323(7323):1213–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haeri S, Guichard I, Baker AM, Saddlemire S, Boggess KA (2009) The effect of teenage maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 113(2):300–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldberg RL, Klerman LV (1995) Adolescent pregnancy: another look. N Engl J Med 332:1161–1162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fraser AM, Brockert JE, Ward RH (1995) Association of young maternal age with adverse reproductive outcomes. N Engl J Med 332:1113–1117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts JM, Pearson G, Cutler J, Lindheimer M (2003) NHLBI Working Group on Research on Hypertension during Pregnancy. Hypertension 41(3):437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carpenter MW, Coustan DR (1982) Criteria for screening tests for gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 144:768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sukalich C, Mingione M, Glantz C (2006) Obstetric outcomes in overweight and obese adolescents. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:851–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rowland ML (1990) Self-reported weight and height. Am J Clin Nutr 52:1125–1133PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Memorial Health University Medical CenterMercer School of MedicineSavannahUSA
  2. 2.Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBaylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations