Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 286, Issue 1, pp 217–229

What every gynecologist should know about male infertility: an update

  • Sandro C. Esteves
  • Alaa Hamada
  • Victor Kondray
  • Aruna Pitchika
  • Ashok Agarwal
Reproductive Medicine

DOI: 10.1007/s00404-012-2274-x

Cite this article as:
Esteves, S.C., Hamada, A., Kondray, V. et al. Arch Gynecol Obstet (2012) 286: 217. doi:10.1007/s00404-012-2274-x

Abstract

Purpose

Our article reviews the evolving concepts in the field of male infertility for gynecologists and other health professionals involved in the care of men and women experiencing difficulty in having a child. The increased knowledge will help in the better management and treatment of infertile couples.

Methods

Review of literature through Pubmed, Science Direct, Online Library.

Results

Gynecologists are often the first healthcare providers to assess an infertile couple. Because half of all infertility problems stem from male factors, it is crucial for the gynecologist to remain updated on the main conditions that cause male infertility as well as current diagnostic tools and treatment options, including conventional strategies and assisted reproductive techniques.

Conclusions

Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility over the past several years and many old concepts are now challenged. Therefore, it is imperative that male infertility physicians should update the gynecologists about the recent advances in the work-up of infertile men in terms of diagnosis and management. Such convention will help improve the standards of care for the infertile couple and enhance the cooperation between male and female reproductive endocrinologists.

Keywords

Male infertility Diagnosis Treatment Azoospermia Oxidative stress 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandro C. Esteves
    • 1
  • Alaa Hamada
    • 2
  • Victor Kondray
    • 3
  • Aruna Pitchika
    • 3
  • Ashok Agarwal
    • 3
  1. 1.ANDROFERT-Andrology and Human Reproduction ClinicCampinasBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Reproductive MedicineCleveland ClinicClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Center for Reproductive MedicineCleveland Clinic, Desk A19.1ClevelandUSA

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