Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 285, Issue 3, pp 805–810 | Cite as

Cofactors in human papillomavirus infection and cervical carcinogenesis

  • Hakan Yetimalar
  • Burcu Kasap
  • Kulal Cukurova
  • Askin Yildiz
  • Adnan Keklik
  • Ferit Soylu
Gynecologic Oncology



This study aimed to identify the effect of various risk factors as the promoters of HPV infection, and to identify which HPV-positive women may have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer.


Smear preparations were examined and classified according to the Bethesda system. HPV-DNA detection and genotyping was carried out using polymerase chain reaction combined with reverse hybridization line-probe assays. Age, smoking habit, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of term births, contraceptive method, progesterone therapy, history of sexually transmitted diseases, history or existence of warts and existence of cervical infection were recorded.


642 women (96 women with abnormal cervical cytology and 546 women with normal cytology) provided cervical samples. Smoking habit, number of sexual partners, number of term births, history of sexually transmitted diseases, history or existence of warts and existence of cervical infection were identified as the promoters of HPV infection. History of sexually transmitted diseases, history or existence of warts and existence of cervical infection were identified as cofactors affecting progression from HPV infection to cervical cancer. Neither of contraceptive methods studied was related to HPV infection or coexistence with malign transformation to cervical cancer.


Information gathered from this study could be used to prioritize limited screening and treatment services to woman who have specific characteristics that may put them at an increased risk of HPV infection. Additionally, by identifying which women have a higher risk of cervical cancer; it may be possible to reduce the number of unnecessary colposcopies.


Cervical cancer Cervix neoplasm Human papillomavirus HPV HPV-DNA Risk factors Cofactors Carcinogenesis 



No financial support was received for this paper.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hakan Yetimalar
    • 1
  • Burcu Kasap
    • 1
  • Kulal Cukurova
    • 1
  • Askin Yildiz
    • 1
  • Adnan Keklik
    • 1
  • Ferit Soylu
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic IIIIzmir Ataturk Training and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic IIIzmir Ataturk Training and Research HospitalIzmirTurkey

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