Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 285, Issue 3, pp 605–612 | Cite as

Association of placental inflammation with fetomaternal hemorrhage and loss of placental mucin-1

  • Christoph Scholz
  • Christine Hermann
  • Andrea Kachler
  • Franz Kainer
  • Klaus Friese
  • Antonios Makrigiannakis
  • Udo Jeschke
Maternal-Fetal Medicine



Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) poses an immediate risk to the fetus and, in case of Rhesus-immunization, to future pregnancies. Given that altered endothelial permeability is part of the pathophysiology of inflammation, in this study we investigated whether placental inflammatory processes like chorioamnionitis (ChoA) or preeclampsia (PE) lead to increased rates of FMH compared to the established risk factor of placenta previa (PP). Putative accompanying markers of trophoblastic damage were also explored.


40 patients (14 PE; 6 ChoA; 9 PP; 11 normal controls) were evaluated for FMH using a flowcytometric test kit, which is able to quantify FMH of 0.06% fetal cells. Placental tissue samples were immunostained for human placental lactogen (hPL), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and mucin-1 (MUC1). MUC1 was evaluated as a potential serum marker of FMH.


Patients with ChoA had a mean calculated FMH volume of 29 ml, compared to 4 ml in PE and 1 ml in PP and controls. MUC1 staining was reduced in PE and ChoA placenta samples, while elevated MUC1 serum concentration correlated positively with FMH.


Diseases of placental inflammation are associated with FMH. Placental MUC1 staining is reduced and serum concentrations are increased in cases of FMH.


Fetomaternal hemorrhage Chorioamnionitis Preeclampsia Inflammation MUC1 Ca27.29 



The authors are very grateful to Prof. S. Endres and his team at the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Munich for their generous assistance with flow-cytometric experiments.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph Scholz
    • 3
  • Christine Hermann
    • 1
  • Andrea Kachler
    • 1
  • Franz Kainer
    • 1
  • Klaus Friese
    • 1
  • Antonios Makrigiannakis
    • 2
  • Udo Jeschke
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyMaistrasse, Ludwig-Maximilians UniversityMunichGermany
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CreteHeraklion, CreteGreece
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical FacultyHeinrich-Heine UniversityDüsseldorfGermany

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