Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 282, Issue 4, pp 355–361 | Cite as

Cervical and oral teratoma in the fetus: a systematic review of etiology, pathology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis

  • Gabriele Tonni
  • C. De Felice
  • G. Centini
  • C. Ginanneschi
Materno-fetal Medicine



The aim of the study was to produce a systematic review about etiology, pathology, diagnosis, prognosis and clinical management regarding oral and cervical teratomas.

Materials and methods

A systematic review of Pubmed/Medline using the following keywords was made: epignathus, cervical teratoma, fetus, oral teratoma, prenatal diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, ultrasound.


The following clinical conclusions can be reached: (1) teratomas are rare, usually benign congenital tumors which recognized multifactorial etiology; (2) prenatal ultrasound diagnosis can be made early in pregnancy (15–16 weeks); (3) 3D ultrasound and MRI may enhance the accuracy of the antenatal diagnosis (location, extension and intracranial spread) and may aid in the selection of patients requiring treatment; (4) prenatal karyotype and search for associated abnormalities is mandatory in all teratomas; (5) delivery should involve elective Cesarean section with ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure or resection of the tumor mass, which may be performed on placental support operation on placental support procedure to increase the chances of postnatal survival.


Cervical teratoma Epignathus Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure (EXIT) Operation on placental support (OOPS) 


Conflict of interest statement



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriele Tonni
    • 1
  • C. De Felice
    • 2
  • G. Centini
    • 3
  • C. Ginanneschi
    • 4
  1. 1.Prenatal Diagnostic Service, Prenatal Diagnostic Unit, Division of Obstetrics and GynecologyGuastalla Civil HospitalGuastalla (Reggio Emilia)Italy
  2. 2.Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Policlinic Hospital “Le Scotte”University of SienaSienaItaly
  3. 3.Prenatal Diagnostic Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Policlinic Hospital “Le Scotte”University of SienaSienaItaly
  4. 4.Human Pathology and Oncology, Pathologic Anatomy Section, Policlinic Hospital “Le Scotte”University of SienaSienaItaly

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