Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics

, Volume 280, Issue 3, pp 415–423 | Cite as

Status of essential trace metals in biological samples of diabetic mother and their neonates

  • Hassan Imran Afridi
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
  • Naveed Kazi
  • Jamil Ahmed Baig
  • Mohammad Khan Jamali
  • Mohammad Balal Arain
  • Raja Adil Sarfraz
  • Hafeez-ur-Rehman Sheikh
  • Ghulam Abbas Kandhro
  • Abdul Qadir Shah
Original Article



There is accumulating facts that the metabolism of essential trace elements is altered in diabetic patients. The aim of present study was to compare the status of essential trace elements, chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in biological samples (whole blood, urine and scalp hair) of insulin dependent diabetic mothers (age ranged 30–40) and their newly born infants (n = 76). An age matched 68 non-diabetic mothers and their infants, residing in the same locality, were selected as referents. For a comparative study, the biological samples of non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant and non pregnant of same age group and socio-economics status were also analysed.


The biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) were collected from study and referent groups. The Cr, Mn and Zn concentrations in all three biological samples were determined by a flame/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by certified reference materials (CRMs) and using conventional wet acid digestion method on same CRMs.


The mean values of Cr, Mn and Zn in scalp hair and blood samples of diabetic mothers and their infants were significantly lower as compared to the referent mothers-infants pairs (p < 0.01), while urinary excretion of all these elements were high in diabetic mother–infant pair samples.


The deficiencies of essential trace elements, Cr, Mn and Zn in biological samples of diabetic women, may play role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and impacts on their neonates.


Diabetic women Neonates Zinc Chromium Manganese Atomic absorption spectrophotometer 



The authors thank to Higher Education Commission of Pakistan for sponsoring this project.

Conflict of interest statement



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hassan Imran Afridi
    • 1
  • Tasneem Gul Kazi
    • 1
  • Naveed Kazi
    • 2
  • Jamil Ahmed Baig
    • 1
  • Mohammad Khan Jamali
    • 1
  • Mohammad Balal Arain
    • 1
  • Raja Adil Sarfraz
    • 1
  • Hafeez-ur-Rehman Sheikh
    • 2
  • Ghulam Abbas Kandhro
    • 1
  • Abdul Qadir Shah
    • 1
  1. 1.Center of Excellence in Analytical ChemistryUniversity of SindhJamshoroPakistan
  2. 2.Liaquat University of Medical and Health SciencesJamshoroPakistan

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