Visfatin and insulin levels and cigarette smoking are independent risk factors for hidradenitis suppurativa: a case–control study
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Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. HS has been associated with obesity, adipokine imbalance, dyslipidemia, pro-inflammation, and metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to determine the association between HS, and serum visfatin levels (SVLs), small-dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL-C), and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), as well as the association between HS, and smoking, alcohol consumption, anthropometric measurements, blood pressures (BPs), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipids, inflammatory markers, homocysteine, uric acid (UA), serum insulin levels (SILs), insulin resistance (IR) and MS, so as to identify relevant risk factors for HS. This case–control study included 40 patients (M/F: 23/17) and 40 age- and gender-matched controls (M/F: 23/17). Demographic data, smoking status and alcohol consumption, personal and family medical history, previous and current treatments were noted. Anthropometric data, BPs, FBG and lipids, homocysteine, UA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), SILs, SVLs, IMA and sdLDL-C were measured. Homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The associations were made by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analysis showed that there was a significant association between HS and smoking, pack-years of smoking, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SILs, CRP, hs-CRP, homocysteine, UA, ESR, HOMA-IR, SVLs, and MS. After adjusting for BMI and smoking status, the SVLs, SILs, and hs-CRP levels remained higher in the patients than in the controls (P = 0.02, P = 0.01, and P = 0.02, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was a significant association between HS, and the SVLs and SILs, and smoking. Each unit increase in the SVL (P = 0.003, 95% CI 1.16–2.11) and SIL (P = 0.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.17) increased the risk of HS 1.56- and 1.09-fold, respectively. Furthermore, smoking was associated with a 14.87-fold increase in the risk of HS (P = 0.001, 95% CI 2.82–78.56). This study indicates that HS patients have higher SVLs, SILs, and hs-CRP levels than healthy controls—independent of BMI and smoking status. The SVL and SILs and smoking were independent risk factors for HS.
KeywordsHidradenitis suppurativa Visfatin Insulin Smoking
This study was supported by Scientific Research Support Fund of Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital on December 14, 2016 (Grant number: 2016/1089).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Neslihan Akdogan, Nuran Alli, Pinar Incel Uysal, Canan Topcuoglu, Tuba Candar and Turan Turhan declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The study protocol was approved by the Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital Ethics Committee (code E-16-1089, 14 December 2016). All study procedures were performed in accordance with the ethical principles of the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki, and all the participants provided written informed consent.
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