A comprehensive in vivo study of Caucasian facial skin parameters on 442 women
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Generally, skin properties are highly specific for each individual depending on various factors such as genetic predisposition, age, gender, body region, health and lifestyle. In this study, we measured various skin parameters on forehead, temple and cheek of 442 Caucasian women between 23 and 63 years, and evaluated differences between these facial regions and also the relationship between skin parameters and age of the volunteers. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum hydration, skin gloss, melanin level, individual typology angle (ITA), erythema, sebum level and elasticity (R7). We observed significant negative relationship between age and TEWL, elasticity and skin lightness represented by ITA. Sebum, melanin and erythema levels increased up to the age of 50, when menopause usually takes place, and then decreased again. Evaluating the skin parameters on the forehead, temple and cheek area, we observed the biggest differences between the cheek and the forehead. The cheek possessed the worst skin parameters, such as the highest TEWL and erythema values and the lowest hydration.
KeywordsCaucasian Cheek Erythema Forehead In vivo study ITA Melanin Skin aging Skin color Skin elasticity Skin gloss Stratum corneum hydration Temple Transepidermal water loss Sebum
We are thankful to our colleagues S. Pavek and T. Muthny who laid the groundwork for the in vivo studies in Contipro a.s. We are also grateful to S. Moravcikova, M. Netusilova, S. Jankovska, M. Moravcova, L. Sucha, M. Maresova and M. Svoboda for the technical assistance.
This research was not funded by a specific project or grant. It was supported by Contipro a.s.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to the publication of this article.
The study was conducted in accordance with the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki and in accordance with the ethical standards of the Contipro a.s. ethical committee.
All the participants included in the study signed informed consent.
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