Anthocyanins from black soybean seed coat prevent radiation-induced skin fibrosis by downregulating TGF-β and Smad3 expression

  • Sang Woo Park
  • Jaehoon Choi
  • Junhyung Kim
  • Woohhyeok Jeong
  • Jun Sik Kim
  • Bae Kwon Jeong
  • Sung Chul Shin
  • Jin Hee Kim
Original Paper

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of anthocyanins from the black soybean seed coat against radiation injury in dermal fibroblasts and mouse skin. Dermal fibroblasts treated with 50 and 100 µg/mL anthocyanins were irradiated with single doses of 20 Gy. Cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA expression were measured. A total of 60 mice were used for an in vivo study. A dose of 100 µg/mL anthocyanins was administered daily for 5 days before or after radiation therapy. Following irradiation (45 Gy), mice were inspected for gross pathology twice per wk for 8 weeks. At 4 and 8 weeks post-irradiation, dorsal skin was harvested for histopathologic examination and protein isolation. In dermal fibroblasts, treatment with 50 and 100 µg/mL anthocyanins significantly reduced radiation-induced apoptosis at 72 h and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation at 48 h. Furthermore, 100 µg/mL anthocyanins markedly decreased Smad3 mRNA expression and increased Smad7 mRNA expression at 72 h post-irradiation. In mice, treatment with 100 µg/mL anthocyanins resulted in a significant reduction in the level of skin injury, epidermal thickness, and collagen deposition after irradiation. Treatment with 100 µg/mL anthocyanins significantly decreased the number of α-SMA-, TGF-β-, and Smad3-positive cells after irradiation. Our study demonstrated that black soybean anthocyanins inhibited radiation-induced fibrosis by downregulating TGF-β and Smad3 expression. Therefore, anthocyanins may be a safe and effective candidate for the prevention of radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

Keywords

Anthocyanin Radiation-induced fibrosis TGF-β Fibroblast Mouse model 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2014R1A1A1006634) and NRF grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2014R1A5A2010008).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The university animal care committee for animal research of Gyeongsang National University approved the study protocol (GLA-101104-M0108).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sang Woo Park
    • 1
  • Jaehoon Choi
    • 2
  • Junhyung Kim
    • 2
  • Woohhyeok Jeong
    • 2
  • Jun Sik Kim
    • 3
  • Bae Kwon Jeong
    • 4
  • Sung Chul Shin
    • 5
  • Jin Hee Kim
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Samsung Changwon HospitalSungkyunkwan University School of MedicineChangwonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Keimyung University School of MedicineKeimyung University Dongsan Medical CenterDaeguRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive SurgeryGyeongsang National University School of MedicineJinjuRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Department of Radiation OncologyGyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University HospitalJinjuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Department of Chemistry, Research Institute of Life ScienceGyeongsang National UniversityJinjuRepublic of Korea
  6. 6.Department of Radiation OncologyKeimyung University School of MedicineDaeguRepublic of Korea

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