The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of anthocyanins from the black soybean seed coat against radiation injury in dermal fibroblasts and mouse skin. Dermal fibroblasts treated with 50 and 100 µg/mL anthocyanins were irradiated with single doses of 20 Gy. Cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mRNA expression were measured. A total of 60 mice were used for an in vivo study. A dose of 100 µg/mL anthocyanins was administered daily for 5 days before or after radiation therapy. Following irradiation (45 Gy), mice were inspected for gross pathology twice per wk for 8 weeks. At 4 and 8 weeks post-irradiation, dorsal skin was harvested for histopathologic examination and protein isolation. In dermal fibroblasts, treatment with 50 and 100 µg/mL anthocyanins significantly reduced radiation-induced apoptosis at 72 h and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation at 48 h. Furthermore, 100 µg/mL anthocyanins markedly decreased Smad3 mRNA expression and increased Smad7 mRNA expression at 72 h post-irradiation. In mice, treatment with 100 µg/mL anthocyanins resulted in a significant reduction in the level of skin injury, epidermal thickness, and collagen deposition after irradiation. Treatment with 100 µg/mL anthocyanins significantly decreased the number of α-SMA-, TGF-β-, and Smad3-positive cells after irradiation. Our study demonstrated that black soybean anthocyanins inhibited radiation-induced fibrosis by downregulating TGF-β and Smad3 expression. Therefore, anthocyanins may be a safe and effective candidate for the prevention of radiation-induced skin fibrosis.
Anthocyanin Radiation-induced fibrosis TGF-β Fibroblast Mouse model
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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2014R1A1A1006634) and NRF grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2014R1A5A2010008).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The university animal care committee for animal research of Gyeongsang National University approved the study protocol (GLA-101104-M0108).
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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