A compound heterozygous mutation in the EDAR gene in a Spanish family with autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
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Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a genetic disorder characterised by sparse hair, lack of sweat glands and malformation of teeth. The X-linked form of the disease, caused by mutations in the EDA gene, represents the majority of HED cases. Autosomal forms result from mutations in either the EDAR or the EDARADD gene. The X-linked and autosomal forms are phenotypically indistinguishable. For the purpose of genetic counselling, it is, therefore, important to know which gene is involved. In this study, we ascertained a Spanish family demonstrating the autosomal recessive form of HED. Affected individuals in the family showed the characteristic features of HED, including fine and sparse scalp hair, sparse eyebrows and eyelashes, periorbital hyperpigmentation, prominent lips, hypodontia and conical teeth, reduced sweating, and dry and thin skin. Sequence analysis of the EDAR gene revealed a novel compound heterozygous mutation [c.52-2A>G; c.212G>A (p.Cys71Tyr)]. Our finding extends the body of evidence that supports the significance of the EDAR signalling pathway in the ectodermal morphogenesis.