Increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression is related to aseptic loosening of total hip replacement
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Aseptic loosening is an increasing problem in total hip replacement (THR). Chronic inflammatory reaction against implant wear particle results in collageno- and osteolysis, leading to loosening of the implant. Cytokines are known to play a major role in this particular inflammatory process . The aim of the present study was to examine interleukin-8 (IL-8) in the synovial-like interface membrane (SLIM) and pseudocapsular tissue of THRs and to compare it to normal knee synovial membrane. Eleven patients suffering from aseptically loosened THRs were included. All the SLIM and pseudocapsular tissue samples were obtained during revision operations. Ten control samples of normal synovium were collected per arthroscopy from the superior recessus of the knee. For immunohistochemical IL-8 detection, polyclonal mouse anti-human immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 IL-8-primary antibody was used with the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) method. Results were quantitated using the Vidas image analysis system. The highest count levels (mean ± SEM) were detected in SLIM tissue (386 ± 82 cells/mm2). The difference was statistically significant compared with pseudocapsular tissue (193 ± 36 cells/mm2) and control samples (18 ± 5 cells/mm2). Count levels in control tissue were on average 5% of the SLIM tissues values. The present study determines for the first time the cellular origin of IL-8 in aseptically loosened THRs and also quantitates the IL-8-producing cells in the periprosthetic tissue. The results reveal a high rise in IL-8 concentration in SLIM and in synovial tissues. This finding moves us one step forward in solving the complex network of multiple factors affecting loosening of hip implants.
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