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Pre-operative templating in THA. Part I: a classification of architectural hip deformities

  • Masanori Kase
  • Padhraig F. O’Loughlin
  • Tarik Aït-Si-Selmi
  • Geert Pagenstert
  • Jean Langlois
  • Hugo BothorelEmail author
  • Michel P. Bonnin
Hip Arthroplasty
  • 9 Downloads

Abstract

Introduction

While numerous classifications of hip arthritis have been proposed, none considered the magnitude and direction of femoral head translation relative to the native acetabulum. A more precise classification of architectural hip deformities is necessary to improve preoperative templating and anticipate surgical challenges of total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of the present study was to introduce a classification system to distinguish different types of architectural hip deformities, based on femoral head translation patterns, and to evaluate its repeatability using plain radiographs (qualitative) and Computed Tomography (CT) measurements (quantitative).

Materials and methods

We studied pre-operative frontal and lateral hip radiographs and CT scans of 191 hips (184 patients) that received primary THA. The distance between the femoral head center (FC) and the acetabular center (AC) was measured, as well as femoral offset, acetabular offset, head center height, acetabular floor distance and femoral neck angle. The hips were classified qualitatively using frontal plain radiographs, and then quantitatively using CT scans (with an arbitrary threshold of 3 mm as Centered, Medialized, Lateralized, Proximalized or Proximo-lateralized. The agreement between qualitative and quantitative classification methods was compared for applying the same classification.

Results

Qualitative classification identified 120 centered (63%), 8 medialized (4%), 49 lateralized (26%), 3 proximalized (2%), and 11 proximo-lateralized (6%) hips, while quantitative classification identified 116 centered (61%), 8 medialized (4%), 51 lateralized (27%), 5 proximalized (3%), and 11 proximo-lateralized (6%) hips. The agreement between the two methods was excellent (0.94; CI 0.90–0.98). Medialization reached 9.7 mm, while lateralization reached 10.9 mm, and proximalization reached 8.5 mm. Proximalized and proximo-lateralized hips had more valgus necks, while medialized hips had more varus necks (p = 0.003).

Conclusions

The classification system enabled repeatable distinction of 5 types of architectural hip deformities. The excellent agreement between quantitative and qualitative methods suggests that plain radiographs are sufficient to classify architectural hip deformities.

Keywords

Arthritis Arthroplasty Hip Hip architecture Pelvis and acetabulum Preoperative planning Templating 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the Research and Education Department of Ramsay Santé for their financial support with statistical analysis and manuscript preparation and to  Mr. Mo Saffarini for his assistance with manuscript writing and illustrations.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors MK, PFOL, JL and HB declare that they have no conflict of interest. TASS receives royalties and or consulting fees from DePuy-Synthes, Symbios, and Corin-Tornier. MPB receives royalties and or consulting fees from DePuy-Synthes, Symbios, Corin-Tornier, Wright-Tornier, and Integra.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional review board (IRB) who approved this study in advance (COS-RGDS-2019-05-003-BONNIN-M) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryNissan Tamagawa HospitalTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryMater Hospital CorkCorkIreland
  3. 3.Ramsay Santé, Hôpital Privé Jean Mermoz, Centre Orthopédique SantyLyonFrance
  4. 4.Artro InstituteLyonFrance
  5. 5.Department of Clinical ResearchUniversity of BaselBaselSwitzerland
  6. 6.Clarahof Clinic of Orthopaedic SurgeryMerian-Iselin-Hospital Swiss Olympic Medical CenterBaselSwitzerland
  7. 7.Knee Institute BaselBaselSwitzerland
  8. 8.ReSurg SANyonSwitzerland

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