Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery

, Volume 136, Issue 6, pp 821–828 | Cite as

Evaluation of the interaction between contact force and decision making on lower extremity biomechanics during a side-cutting maneuver

  • Jin Hyun Kim
  • Ki-Kwang Lee
  • Keun Ok Ahn
  • Se Jin Kong
  • Seong Cheol Park
  • Yong Seuk LeeEmail author
Arthroscopy and Sports Medicine



The purposes of this study were (1) to compare the effect between contact force [first and second ground reaction force (GRF)] and decision making (anticipation vs unanticipation) on lower extremity biomechanics during a side-cutting maneuver in young soccer players; and (2) to identify which condition is more vulnerable to biomechanical risk factors of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury.

Materials and methods

Sixteen young, male middle school soccer players with right leg dominance participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion analysis featuring GRF and electromyography (EMG) of the right leg was used during the stance phase of the side-cutting maneuver. Kinematics, kinetics, and EMG data for each athlete were analyzed and averaged for three successful anticipated and unanticipated side-cutting maneuvers.


GRF was smaller and muscle activities were lower in most muscle groups in the first peak than that of the second peak. More flexion and internal rotational angles of the hip joint were observed in the unanticipated first peak that that of the second peak. Lesser flexion angle and moment of the knee joint observed in the first peak than that of the second peak, and abduction moment was increased after the unanticipation.


The GRF and muscle activities were smaller in the first peak than those in the second peak; however, first peak showed a closer association with biomechanical risk factors of the ACL injury. There were some interactions between contact force and decision making and unanticipation made the first peak more risky to the ACL injury.


Anterior cruciate ligament Contact force Unanticipation Biomechanics Side-cutting 


Compliance with ethical standards


“This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2014R1A1A2053356)”.


  1. 1.
    Beaulieu ML, Lamontagne M, Xu L (2008) Gender differences in time-frequency EMG analysis of unanticipated cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1795–1804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beaulieu ML, Lamontagne M, Xu L (2009) Lower limb muscle activity and kinematics of an unanticipated cutting manoeuvre: a gender comparison. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 17:968–976CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Besier TF, Lloyd DG, Ackland TR, Cochrane JL (2001) Anticipatory effects on knee joint loading during running and cutting maneuvers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1176–1181CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boden BP, Dean GS, Feagin JA Jr, Garrett WE Jr (2000) Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Orthopedics 23:573–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Boden BP, Griffin LY, Garrett WE Jr (2000) Etiology and prevention of noncontact ACL injury. Phys Sportsmed 28:53–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boden BP, Sheehan FT, Torg JS, Hewett TE (2010) Noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries: mechanisms and risk factors. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 18:520–527CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borotikar BS, Newcomer R, Koppes R, McLean SG (2008) Combined effects of fatigue and decision making on female lower limb landing postures: central and peripheral contributions to ACL injury risk. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 23:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gainey JC, Kadaba MP, Wootten ME, Ramakrishnan HK, Siris ES, Lindsay R, Canfield R, Cochran GV (1989) Gait analysis of patients who have Paget disease. J Bone Joint Surg Am 71:568–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Houck JR, Duncan A, De Haven KE (2006) Comparison of frontal plane trunk kinematics and hip and knee moments during anticipated and unanticipated walking and side step cutting tasks. Gait Posture 24:314–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Imwalle LE, Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE (2009) Relationship between hip and knee kinematics in athletic women during cutting maneuvers: a possible link to noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury and prevention. J Strength Cond Res 23:2223–2230CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kadaba MP, Ramakrishnan HK, Wootten ME (1990) Measurement of lower extremity kinematics during level walking. J Orthop Res 8:383–392CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim JH, Lee KK, Kong SJ, An KO, Jeong JH, Lee YS (2014) Effect of anticipation on lower extremity biomechanics during side- and cross-cutting maneuvers in young soccer players. Am J Sports Med 42:1985–1992CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ladenhauf HN, Graziano J, Marx RG (2013) Anterior cruciate ligament prevention strategies: are they effective in young athletes—current concepts and review of literature. Curr Opin Pediatr 25:64–71CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, Stanish WD, Deluzio KJ (2007) Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated run and crosscut maneuver. Am J Sports Med 35:1901–1911CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, Stanish WD, Deluzio KJ (2007) Neuromuscular and lower limb biomechanical differences exist between male and female elite adolescent soccer players during an unanticipated side-cut maneuver. Am J Sports Med 35:1888–1900CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Landry SC, McKean KA, Hubley-Kozey CL, Stanish WD, Deluzio KJ (2009) Gender differences exist in neuromuscular control patterns during the pre-contact and early stance phase of an unanticipated side-cut and cross-cut maneuver in 15–18 years old adolescent soccer players. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 19:e370–e379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lieberman DE, Venkadesan M, Werbel WA, Daoud AI, D’Andrea S, Davis IS, Mang’eni RO, Pitsiladis Y (2010) Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature 463:531–535CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lim BO, Lee YS, Kim JG, An KO, Yoo J, Kwon YH (2009) Effects of sports injury prevention training on the biomechanical risk factors of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female basketball players. Am J Sports Med 37:1728–1734CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lohmander LS, Ostenberg A, Englund M, Roos H (2004) High prevalence of knee osteoarthritis, pain, and functional limitations in female soccer players 12 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum 50:3145–3152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mache MA, Hoffman MA, Hannigan K, Golden GM, Pavol MJ (2013) Effects of decision making on landing mechanics as a function of task and sex. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 28:104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Milner CE, Ferber R, Pollard CD, Hamill J, Davis IS (2006) Biomechanical factors associated with tibial stress fracture in female runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:323–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Olsen OE, Myklebust G, Engebretsen L, Holme I, Bahr R (2003) Relationship between floor type and risk of ACL injury in team handball. Scand J Med Sci Sports 13:299–304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sigward SM, Pollard CD, Havens KL, Powers CM (2012) Influence of sex and maturation on knee mechanics during side-step cutting. Med Sci Sports Exerc 44:1497–1503CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    van Gent RN, Siem D, van Middelkoop M, van Os AG, Bierma-Zeinstra SM, Koes BW (2007) Incidence and determinants of lower extremity running injuries in long distance runners: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med 41:469–480 (discussion 480) CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jin Hyun Kim
    • 1
  • Ki-Kwang Lee
    • 2
  • Keun Ok Ahn
    • 3
  • Se Jin Kong
    • 2
  • Seong Cheol Park
    • 4
  • Yong Seuk Lee
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Sports RehabilitationJeju International UniversityJejuSouth Korea
  2. 2.School of Sports ScienceKookmin UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Kinesiologic Medical ScienceDankook UniversityCheonanSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of Orthopaedic SurgerySeoul National University College of Medicine, Bundang HospitalSeongnamSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations