Remodeling potentials of biphasic calcium phosphate granules in open wedge high tibial osteotomy
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Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) has proved to be an effective bone substitute, but it’s effectiveness and remodeling potential in open wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) has not been analyzed yet. This study sought to evaluate the bone healing and remodeling potentials of BCP granules using a radiographic rating system in biplanar OWHTO.
Materials and methods
Fifteen patients (15 knees) underwent biplanar OWHTO. Bone gaps were filled with BCP granules. For radiographic evaluation, remodeling was divided into four phases. Phase 1 was accepted as rounded osteotomy sites, with clear distinction between BCP and bone, phase 2 was accepted as whitened osteotomy sites, with distinction between BCP and bone still visible, phase 3 was accepted as distinction between BCP and bone not visible and cloudy bone formation and phase 4 was accepted as full reformation of BCP granules (4A-BCP visible, 4B-disappearence of BCP) with no sign of osteotomy. Bone union was confirmed with clinical (full weight bearing without pain) and radiographic evaluation (cortical bridging callus on radiographs and phase 3 or greater remodeling). The time to full remodeling and the starting point of the consolidation on anteroposterior radiographs were noted. Complications were also noted at each clinical follow-up.
Mean follow-up was 27.2 months. The mean age was 55.8 years. At clinical follow-up, there were no wound healing problems, no loss of corrections, no infections, and no complications. All osteotomies successfully healed. According to the radiologic classification system, at the 6th week, 73.3% (11/15) of patients were in phase 1 and the remaining 26.7% (4/15) were in phase 2. At 12-month follow-up, 46.7 (7/15) of the patients were still in phase 3. After 2 years, all radiographs showed to be in phase 4A. Radiographic union was noted to progress from lateral to medial and finally central.
BCP can be successfully used as a bone substitute. The radiographic remodeling and consolidation process of BCP was found to be different from that of beta-tricalcium phosphate. In our patients with more than 2 years of follow-up, BCP granules did not completely remodel. As a result, this clinical study demonstrated that calcium phosphate granules containing hydroxyapatite had a long period of “creeping substitution” that lasts longer than 2 years.
KeywordsHigh tibial osteotomy Biphasic calcium phosphate Remodeling Radiology
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