Sagittal plane analysis of the open and closed methods in children with displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus (a radiological study)
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The aim of this study was to compare the radiological outcome of open and close reduction and osteosynthesis methods in the treatment of type II and III supracondylar humerus fractures in childhood with respect to the immediate post-operative reduction quality in sagittal plane.
One hundred and forty four-pediatric patients with type IIb and III supracondylar humerus fractures treated at two centers between 1995 and 2005 were evaluated radiologically within a retrospective study. Seventy-six patients (54 boys, 22 girls, mean age 7.6, range 2–12) were treated by closed reduction and cross percutaneous pinning while 68 (49 boys, 19 girls, mean age 7.3, range 2–13) were treated by open reduction. The reduction quality of the open and closed groups was compared on immediate post-operative lateral radiographs by measuring of lateral humerocapitellar angle, anterior humeral line and anterior coronoid line criteria. The reduction quality was classified excellent, good, fair and poor according to the achievement of three, two, one or none of the criteria, respectively. Reductions classified as excellent and good were introduced as acceptable results.
At least one criterion was achieved in all the patients of both the groups. The mean humerocapitellar angle was 30.1° in closed reduction group while the mean of it was 29.8° in open reduced group. Radiograph of 48 (63.1%) patients with closed reduction were found to display the anterior humeral line intersecting the middle one-third of capitellum while this criteria was 45 (66%) in open reduction group. The anterior coronoid line was disturbed in three patients in each of both the groups. The reduction quality was evaluated to be excellent in 32 patients, good in 31, fair in 13 at the closed reduction group while these evaluations were 31, 20 and 17 in open reduction group, respectively. Successful reduction was achieved in 74.9% of the patients in closed reduction group and 75% of the patients in open reduction group.
It is concluded that there was no significant difference between closed and open reductions of pediatric displaced supracondylar fractures with regard to the radiological criteria of reduction quality in sagittal plane.